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The Civil War 1861-1865

The Civil War 1861-1865

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The Civil War 1861-1865

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  1. Chapter 21 The Civil War 1861-1865

  2. The Union (Blue) • Northern states and the US Federal government • West Virginia broke off from Virginia to stay in the Union • The Confederacy (Grey) • Southern states fighting for independence and keeping slavery Two Sides Confederate Union

  3. Manpower: • North: 22 Million people • South: 9 million people • Industry: used for making supplies and transporting on railroads • North: 90% of factories and industry • South: 10% • Railroads: To move goods and people • North: 21,000 miles of track • South: 9,000 Miles of track • North also had more of the banks and gold • More farms to produce more food in the North (South’s farm had too much cotton Resources for each before the war No

  4. Strengths: • Industry and resources • Manpower/Population • Women worked • Railroads • Abraham Lincoln • Weaknesses: • Lack of military officers and leadership • Lincoln searched for officers • Most of war fought in the South Strengths and Weakness: The Union

  5. Strengths: • Military leadership • Many officers from West Point • Fighting on own territory • Weaknesses • Economy couldn’t handle a long war • Union ships blocked cotton from being sent to Europe • Most of the money was invested in land and slaves • Lack of rails and transportation • Couldn’t be united as states of one cause Strengths and weaknesses: confederacy

  6. Union’s war strategy: “Anaconda Plan” • Surround the South by land and sea to cut off trade • Divide the Confederacy so they couldn’t help each other • Capture Richmond, VA (Confederate capital) and destroy its government • Spies were used by both sides to seek out enemy plans • Rose Greenhow worked against the Union Union strategy of the War

  7. Spies were used by both sides to seek out enemy plans • Rose Greenhow worked against the Union • She figured out that the Union was going straight for Richmond and they were cut off by the Confederates at Bull Run • Confederates able to “Stonewall” the Union until troops arrived • What is “Stonewalling”? • This battle showed the Union that the South was not going to be a quick defeat Battle of bull run

  8. Women picked up the slack as men left to fight, in the North and the South • The worked in factories and shops • The worked as government employees and teachers • They were nurses in hospitals and on the battlefield • This was the first time many women had ever worked outside the home Women of the war Dragon Dix was a Union nurse in the Civil War known for her bravery and toughness

  9. 1861: Southern ports had been blockaded by the Union • Britain refused to help the South with its ships • Union worked to divide the South at the Mississippi by taking New Orleans first • Ulysses S Grant led the way to take most of KY and TN from the Confederate • The Union tried to take Richmond again in 1862, but again failed 1861-1862

  10. Gen. Lee was trying to push Confederate troops into Maryland (Union state) to get them to join the South and convince Europe to help CSA • Lost the battle, but was one of the bloodiest day in American history • Union lost 2,100 of the 75,000 men • C.S.A. lost 2,770 men of the 52,000 • 11,000 were wounded/missing Antietam

  11. Because of better artillery, killing could be done at a distance • Guns improved too • Medical care was weak. • Infections were too common • No anesthetics were used • More died from disease than wounds • 3:1 died from disease for each battle death Changes in warfare

  12. Although Lincoln didn’t like slavery, the reason he wanted to fight was to preserve the Union • Emancipation Proclamation: Jan 1, 1863 • Declared all slaves in the Confederacy free • Meant to deprive the South of their workers • Confederacy ignored it, so it didn’t free anyone • Slave in Union’s border states even remained slaves • “Slavery must die, (so) that the nation might live” • -Abe Lincoln Emancipating

  13. Both sides tired of war, so they set up a draft: system for requiring citizens to join the army • Confederates did it first in 1862, for men ages 18-35 having to serve 3 years • Union followed a year later making it 20-45 year olds • You could pay someone to fight for you • “Rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” • Riots ensued about not wanting to fight in NYC Drafting more troops

  14. Lee and Confederates tried to invade the North again to try and seek peace • Union had the high ground with 90,000 troops • 75,000 Confed. troops tried to break the lines, but failed • 40,000 people died in three days • 17,500 for the Union, 23,000 for Confederates • Lee retreated to fight a defensive war in South Battle of Gettysburg

  15. After the battle, a new burial ground was dedicated. Lincoln went to give a speech The first man took an hour, and 15,000 people were unable to hear Lincoln, but his words spoke deep about enduring for the cause of liberty Lincoln goes to Gettysburg

  16. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Gettysburg Address

  17. Civil War’s firsts: • First to use railroads to move goods and troops • First to use telegraphs • First war recorded in photographs • Ships covered in iron better than wooden ships • Merrimac/Virginia- Confederate ship that the Union had left behind in VA • Monitor- Union ship with turret New technology

  18. Key city in control of the Miss. River • Hard to capture because of its elevation • Union Navy fired cannons and Gen. Grant led the army to capture the hill • People ate horses and mules for 6 weeks while under attack • City fell and Union not only controlled the Miss. River, but had divided the Union • Life was becoming grim for the Confederacy Vicksburg, mississippi

  19. Before 1862, even northerners saw it as a “white man’s war” • 210,000+ blacks joined the Union Army/Navy • *Massachusetts 54thRegiment* • Earned equal pay, after protesting • Fought at Ft. Wagner to even though losing might mean being captured into slavery • Lost the fight, but showed great bravery • 166 regiments (1000 men) fought in 500 battles • African-Americans in the war Ft. Wagner Battle Scene

  20. Gen. Grant takes over all Union forces • He and Gen. Bill Sherman map out an attack to end the war (Take Richmond and Atlanta) • Tough fighting went on between Lee and Grant, but Grant was able to refresh his troops, Lee’s army was too defeated • Grant believed in total war and destroying everything that the enemy could use for war • Sherman and Grant plowed through the South destroying everything in sight Union’s End of the war strategy

  21. Once Richmond was lost, Lee agrees to surrender April 9, 1865 • Grant was generous with the terms of the surrender • Confederates could go home if they promised not to fight • Could take horses and mules, swords and weapons • Grant sent food to troops even. • “The Rebels are our countrymen again” Confederate surrender at appomattox

  22. President Lincoln was killed just five days after the Confederates surrendered by John Wilkes Booth Country had to rebuild without slavery and re-unite the United States South as we knew it was over, so they had to start all over. Aftermath of the war…

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