Causes • North outraged by Fugitive Slave Act • Debate over slavery in the new territories escalates • South fears the North will gain too much power in Congress 3. Lincoln elected President 4. Southern states secede 5. Confederates fire on Fort Sumter
Compromise of 1850 • To solve the issue of slavery in the new territories • CA admitted as a free state • Popular sovereignty would decide the rest of the territories • New, harsher Fugitive Slave Law
Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857 1sttime for a slave to appeal to the Supreme Court. Slave for over 50 years, DredScott’s master took him up to Wisconsin territory After the death of the master, Dred sued for emancipation, due to the fact that he was living in a “free” territory. Supreme Court favors master’s family and Dred Scott remains in slavery, along with his family.
South Disadvantages Balance of Forces South Advantages Homefield Advantage Defensive war Talented Officers Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson Soldiers ready to fight. Ran out of resources. Bad transportation. Slowly ran out of food. Bad Economy Less population
North Disadvantages North Advantages Strong Economy Tons of producing factories. Transportation: railroad Controlled the sea. Traded w/Europe Large reserve of manpower Huge influx of immigrants Inconsistent Leadership Finally choosing Ulysses S. Grant Have to mobilize. Offensive war.
South Volunteers and Draftees North Volunteers were plentiful until 1863. -Conscription Law (draft) -$300 for a substitute Immigrants were enlisted once off the boat Depended on volunteers (age range 17-50) -1862, resorted to Conscription once volunteers dried up
The Gettysburg Address • Nov. 19, 1863 • Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. • Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it, as a final resting place for those who died here, that the nation might live. This we may, in all propriety do. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have hallowed it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here; while it can never forget what they did here. • It is rather for us the living, we here be dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
Effects: 1. 1 million casualties, 600,000 dead 2. Cost $15 billion 3. States rights movement crushed. 4. 13th amendment passes abolishing slavery without compensation to slave owners.