Causes of the Civil War • Federalism/Strong Union (North) versus individual states rights and limited central government (South). • Issue of Slavery – Compromises weren’t working • Missouri Compromise: Maine free state/Missouri slave state. Territories wanted statehood. BALANCE! • Moral Issue vs. Property/Ownership Issue
Causes - Continued • Southern States begin to succeed from the Union. • February, 1860: Declare themselves a new nation: the Confederate States of America • Drafted a constitution similar to the US constitution except that states were independent and guaranteed the existence of slavery. • Jefferson Davis elected Confederate President. • South Carolina first state to succeed from the Union.
War Begins • US Fort Sumter in South Carolina – Davis didn’t want Federal soldiers in the south. Confederacy takes control of the Fort and first shots fired starting the Civil War on April 12, 1861. • Turning Point: Page 306 • In 1861, the western regions of Virginia split with the eastern portion politically, and the two were never reconciled as a single state again. In 1863, the western region was admitted to the Union as a new separate state.
President Abe Lincoln Strong Navy – Warships & Shipyards Generals Higher population to draw troops from. George B. McClellan Civil War: 1861-1865 NORTH – UNION (GREY) Believed in preservation of the Union - a strong central government and ending slavery. 90% of nation’s factories were in the north. Ulysses S. Grant George Meade More railroad tracks to distribute food and supplies. War Strategy • Financing the War: • Controlled national treasury. • Large reserves of cash • Legal Tender Act of 1862: National currency & issue paper money (Greenbacks) Anaconda Plan: Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the conspiracy and deplete their resources. (Like an anaconda snake that slowly strangles its prey to death.) Key People Advantages
President Jefferson Davis Strong military tradition and training. Generals 7 of the 8 military colleges were in the south. Robert E. Lee Civil War: 1861-1865 SOUTH – CONFEDERATE (BLUE) Believed in states’ rights and a limited central government’s power. Wanted slavery to continue. Stonewall Jackson Weaknesses Weak central government – hard to conduct war. War Strategy A defensive war of attrition and force the North to use up their resources and get tired of the war. Pick battles carefully and avoid large battles to avoid huge losses. • Financing the War: • Inability to raise money through taxes (refused to pay). • Printed worthless money led to 9,000% inflation. Less people, industry, railroads and resources. Key People Advantages
Civil War Technology • New bullets/better accuracy • Telegraph/better & faster communication • Balloons/better way to spy on the other side • Ironclads/armor-plated steamships-more solid • Trench warfare developed
PresidentAbrahamLincoln 16th President Elected President 1860 President during Civil War Leader of the Union. Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address/2-Minute speech given on November 19, 1863 Assassinated on April 14, 1865
Robert E. Lee One of the most respected senior officers in the United States Army. Decided to stay loyal to his home state of Virginia - which had seceded from the Union. Commander of the Confederate Army
Key Words/Terms • Greenbacks: This is what the Legal Tender Act’s national currency and government issued money was nicknamed. • Copperheads: Nickname for the Peace Democrats. Opposed the war and called for reuniting the states through negotiation. Seen as traitors by the Republicans.
Key Words/Terms • Conscription: Forcing people into military service. • Writs of Habeas Corpus: The suspension of a person’s right not be imprisoned unless charged with a crime and given a trial. • Attrition: The wearing down of one side by the other side through exhaustion of soldiers and resources.