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“The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland” Address by Prof. John Coolahan to the

“The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland” Address by Prof. John Coolahan to the Colloquium on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education U.C.D., 21 June 2010. The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland. Structure of the Address

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“The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland” Address by Prof. John Coolahan to the

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  1. “The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland” Address by Prof. John Coolahan to the Colloquium on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education U.C.D., 21 June 2010.

  2. The Development of Q.A. within Teacher Education Policy in Ireland. Structure of the Address • Quality Teaching – A Major International Concern • The Irish Context • Tradition of Teacher Education • Structure of Teacher Education • Teacher Education as Part of an Education Reform Era • New Approaches to Quality Assurance

  3. Structure Contd.. International Influences on Q.A. OECD, EU Centrality of the Concept of “Competence” Contemporaneous Q.A. Development in Ireland – NQAI – NQF European Meta-Framework Development The Teaching Council of Ireland Congruence of Thinking on Q.A.

  4. Quality of Teaching – A Major International Concern • Range of Studies e.g. OECD – “Teachers Matter” (2005) “School Leadership” (2008) Talis – “Creating Effective T. and L. Environments” (2009) EU - “Education of Teachers and Trainers”, (2002-06) - Conclusions of Council, 2007, 2008, 2009 - “A Handbook on Teacher Induction Programmes”, 2010 World Bank, “Learning to Teach in the Knowledge Society” (2005)

  5. Contd .. Quality Teaching – A Major International Concern UNESCO, “Education for All: The Quality Imperative”, (2005) McKinsey Report, “Best Performing School Systems (2007) • Quality Frameworks NQFs – now 70 countries Bologna Framework (2005), now 46 countries European Qualifications Framework (2008)

  6. The Irish Context • High Status / Social Regard of Teaching Profession - National Survey, Nov. 2009 – 70% considered teachers did their work “very well” or “well”; 87% regarded as “a complex job”, 70% said teachers were “Very Trusted” or “Trusted”. From a long occupational list, Teachers placed second – to Nurses. • Very competitive entry to T. Ed. (Primary – Top Quintile; Sec. – 90% Hons. Degree) • “There are no major publicly expressed concerns about teacher education, development or certification”, Country Background Report, for OECD, (2003).

  7. Tradition of Teacher Education Deep Roots – Prim. 1838; Techn. 1902 Sec. 1912 Q.A. Prim. - Tight control by inspectorate - 1974 – Validation by universities Sec. - 1915 Registration Council 1918 R.C. in Operation, until 2006 System of External Examiners in Universities.

  8. Structure of Teacher Education (ITE) Primary 5 Colleges of Education – linked to Universities • B Ed. – Concurrent 3 year • Consecutive – Degree + 18 months • Followed by 1 year of successful probation • 2003 Hibernia On-Line Provision (HETAC) Post Primary • Consecutive – 3/4 Yr. Degree + 1 Year Education • Concurrent 4 Years • Followed by 1 year successful probation

  9. Induction Traditionally informal 2002-10 “Pilot” Programme for Prim and P.P. Involvement of universities, colleges of education, DES, and Teaching Profession • Partnership Approach • Action Research Model • Formal Evaluation • Yet to be extended nationally

  10. In-Service (CPD) Well established Many formats • Post – grad. Courses – formally evaluated • Great variety of short courses, • many providers • 30 Education Centres • Subject Associations • Extensive Support Services – Skilled and Trained Peers – Curriculum, Leadership, Planning • Evaluations • Being Curtailed

  11. Teacher Education as Part of an Education Reform Era 1990s Era of Major Appraisal and Reform of Education Focus on the Quality of Teacher Education - 1991 OECD Report; 1992 Green Paper; 1994 National Education Convention; 1995 White Paper – Gov. Accept 3’Is policy 1998 – 2002 Reviews of Prim. and P.P. Teacher Education • Extension and Restructuring Recommended No Time Extension Course Adaptations Occurred

  12. New Approaches to Quality Assurance 1995  Universities Adopt New Q.A. Procedures - Institutional and Departmental - Self-Appraisal, Peer Review, Report – Publication (periodic) - External Examiners Continued - Professional Recognition (Reg. Council) for P.P. 1996 – Irish EU Presidency – “A Strategy for Lifelong Learning”  Concern for Co-ordinating Qualifications

  13. International Influences on Q.A. OECD e.g. “Teachers Matter” (2005) “The overarching priority is for countries to have in place a clear and concise statement or profile of what teachers are expected to know and be able to do. This is necessary to provide the framework to guide initial teacher education, teacher certification, teachers’ on-going professional development and career advancement, and to assess the extent to which these different elements are being effective.” (P. 131).

  14. “The profile should be evidence-based and built on active involvement by the teaching profession in identifying teacher competencies and standards of performance. A clear, well structured and widely supported teacher profile can be a powerful mechanism for aligning the various elements involved in developing teachers’ knowledge and skills” (P. 132).

  15. “The teacher profile must reflect the broad range of competencies that teachers require to be effective practitioners in modern schools. It should encompass strong subject matter knowledge, pedagogical skills, the capacity to work effectively with a wide range of students and colleagues, contribution to the school and wider profession and the teacher’s capacity to continue developing. The profile could express different levels of performance appropriate to beginning teachers, experienced teachers, and those with higher responsibilities. The profile would emphasise demonstrated attainment of key knowledge, skills and competencies for effective professional practice.” (P. 132).

  16. OECD recognised the value of Teaching Councils in providing “a mechanism for profession – led standards setting” – Example of planned role and function of Ireland’s Teaching Council. (P. 216).

  17. EU Barcelona Council (2002), in wake of Lisbon (2000) – “The European Council sets the objective to make Europe’s educational training system a world quality reference by 2010” • Workgroup A – “Improving the Education and Training of Teachers and Trainers” • “Identifying the skills that teachers and trainers need given their changing roles in society”. • “Teaching competencies and qualification profiles, based on the socially expected role of teachers … to be defined as criteria for the development and external quality assurance of teacher education provision”.

  18. In line with the Bologna process teacher educators are expected to develop descriptions of the learning outcomes of teacher ed. progs., and incorporate ECTS credits – “This topic challenges teacher education institutions to participate pro-actively in the policy definition of teaching competences and qualification profiles”.

  19. Tuning Project (Socrates) (2001-08) • Viewing courses in terms of learning outcomes and competencies “By learning outcomes we mean the set of competencies including knowledge, understanding and skills a learner is expected to demonstrate after completion of a process of learning.” Tuning Educational Structures in Europe 2009

  20. Centrality of the Concept of “Competence” • Conceptions arising from behaviourist and positivist thinking narrow, checklist approach - A more liberal concept which sees the achievement of competence as accompanied in its appropriation and in its exercise by the attitudes, beliefs, and personal culture of the person who acquires and exercises the competency in question.  Ireland favours the liberal, professional model

  21. Contemporaneous Q.A. Developments in Ireland 1999 – Qualifications (Education and Training) Act – “to establish and maintain a framework, being a framework for the development, recognition and award of qualifications in the State (in this Act referred to as a “framework of qualifications”), based on standards of knowledge, skill or competence to be acquired by learners”; - Qualifications Act Section 7 (a) 2001 NQAI – HETAC, FETAC 2003 NQF

  22. The NQAI has Quality Assurance responsibilities in relation to all awarding bodies Significance of Communications Campaign, Consensus Building Strong commitment by Universities – IUQB (2002); IHEQN (2003); FIN (2007) Descriptions for all forms of learning – formal, non-formal, informal – recognition of prior learning Vision for Lifelong Learning

  23. European Meta-Framework Development • Ireland an influential partner in shaping European Meta-Frameworks • 1999 2005, Developing the ‘Bologna Framework’, the EHEA, with the “Dublin Descriptors” (2004) • Nov. 2006 – Ireland the first European Country to verify the compatibility of its NQF with the Bologna Framework • Ireland urged European Framework (EQF) 2004 – completed April 2008 • Sept. 2009 Ireland the first country to reference its NQF to the EQF

  24. EQF EHEA Framework NQF NQF Major Award- types Levels (Bologna) Levels 1 1 Level 1 Certificate 2 Level 2 Certificate 2 3 Level 3 Certificate, Junior Certificate 3 4 Level 4 Certificate, Leaving Certificate 4 5 Level 5 Certificate, Leaving Certificate 5 Short Cycle within 6 Advanced Certificate (FET award); First Cycle Higher Certificate (HET award) • First Cycle 7 Ordinary Bachelors Degree 8 Honours Bachelors Degree, Higher Diploma 7 Second Cycle 9 Masters Degree, Post-Graduate Diploma 8 Third Cycle 10 Doctoral Degree, Higher Doctorate

  25. 2001 – The Teaching Council Act – Est. 2006 7.2-(2) (d) determine, from time to time, the education and training and qualifications required for a person to be registered (e) establish procedures in relation to the induction of teachers into the teaching profession (g) establish procedures and criteria for probation of teachers including periods of probation (m) review and accredit programmes of teacher education and training for the purpose of registration 38. – (1) (c) Review the standards of knowledge, skill and competence required for the practice of teaching.

  26. Teaching Council’s Approach • Care in Planning • Consultation – Partnership • Research – Evidence Based • Communication – Reportage • Code of Professional Practice – Standards of Teaching, Knowledge, Skill and Competence Code of Professional Conduct.

  27. Review and Accreditation 2009 – “Draft Strategy for Review and Accreditation” Structured on Inputs, Processes and Outcomes Five-Member Review Panels – Range of Expertise and Experience Detailed Framework for Visitations Reportage Procedure Rich Conception of Knowledge, Skill and Competence First Four Pilot Accreditation Reviews conducted 2009/10 (ITE)

  28. Congruence of Thinking on Q.A. Irish tradition, particularly post 1995 International approaches e.g. OECD, EU Role of NQAI – NQF Co-ordination with Bologna, EQF Development of Teaching Council A Culture Shift: Consensus Building; Much Analysis, Research, Reflection A Work in Progress.

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