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Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary Rock

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Sedimentary Rock

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  1. Sedimentary Rock Section 3.3

  2. Sedimentary Rocks • All sedimentary rocks begin to form when existing rocks are broken down into sediments through a process called weathering • Weathering is the process in which rocks are physically and chemically broken down by water, air, ice and gravity • Sediments are transported, by water, gravity, glaciers or wind, and eventually become compacted and cemented together, forming sedimentary rocks

  3. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks • Sedimentary comes from the Latin word sedimentum, which means settling • There are several major processes that contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks: • Weathering, Erosion and Deposition • Compaction and Cementation

  4. Weathering, Erosion and Deposition • Weathering is any process that breaks rocks into sediments • Chemical weathering takes place when the minerals in rocks change into new substances • Erosion involves weathering and the transportation of sediments • Deposition is the process when water, wind, ice or gravity loses energy causing sediments to drop • Larger sediments are deposited first, smaller sediments are dropped later

  5. Compaction and Cementation • Once sediments are deposited, they become lithified or turned into rock • Compaction is a process that squeezes, or compacts, sediments, pushing water out • Compaction is caused by the weight of sediments • Cementation takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments

  6. Classification of Sedimentary Rocks • Sedimentary Rocks can be classified into two main groups according to the way they form • Clastic – rocks that are made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals • Chemical – forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions

  7. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • Clastic sedimentary rocks are made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals • Clastic sedimentary rocks can be grouped according to the size of the sediments in the rocks • Conglomerate rocks are made up of rounded, gravel-size or larger particles • Breccia rocks have angular particles • Sandstone rocks have sediments that are sand-sized grains

  8. Breccia Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Conglomerate Sandstone

  9. Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • Chemical sedimentary rocks forms when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions • The precipitation generally occurs when water evaporates or boils off leaving a solid product • Examples include limestones, rock salt, chert, flint and rock gypsum • Biochemical sedimentary rocks contain shells and skeletal remains of organisms that settle to the ocean floor

  10. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Chert Rock Salt Flint Limestone

  11. Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks

  12. Features of some Sedimentary Rocks • Sedimentary rocks give clues to how, when and where the rocks formed • Layers of sedimentary rock records a period of sediment deposition. The oldest layers are found at the bottom • Ripple marks may indicate that the rock was formed along a beach or stream bed • Mud cracks are formed when wet mud or clay dried and shrank, leaving a record of a dry environment • Fossils found in sedimentary rocks can help answer questions about the rock

  13. Ripple marks • Mud cracks • Fossils • Layers of sedimentary rock

  14. Summary of Sedimentary Rocks • Sedimentary rocks form as the result of four major process • Weathering produces particles called sediments • Wind, water, ice and gravity erode and deposit sediments • Sediments are compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks • Sedimentary rocks can be classified according to how they form, by using rock formation, texture and composition

  15. (Table 2 on page 79)