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  1. Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Transport and Defense Lesson 2 Structure, Movement, and Control Lesson 3Reproduction and Development Chapter Wrap-Up CMCD/Getty Images Chapter Menu

  2. What are the functions of the human body systems? Chapter Introduction

  3. What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements. Chapter Introduction

  4. 1. A human body has organ systems that carry out specific functions. 2. The body protects itself from disease. 3. All bones in the skeletal system are hollow. 4. The endocrine system makes hormones. Do you agree or disagree? Chapter Introduction

  5. 5. The testes produce sperm. 6. Puberty occurs during infancy. Do you agree or disagree? Chapter Introduction

  6. Transport and Defense • How do nutrients enter and leave the body? • How do nutrients travel through the body? • How does the body defend itself from harmful invaders? Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC

  7. Transport and Defense • lymphocyte • immunity • organ system • homeostasis • nutrient • Calorie Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab

  8. The Body’s Organization • Groups of organs that work together and perform a specific task are organ systems. • Organ systems provide movement, transport substances, and perform many other functions. Images Lesson 1-1

  9. The Body’s Organization (cont.) Organ systems work together and maintain homeostasis, or steady internal conditions when external conditions change. Lesson 1-1

  10. Digestion and Excretion • The human body breaks down food through the process of digestion. • Substances that are not used by the body are removed through the digestive system and by the excretory system. Lesson 1-2

  11. Digestion Food enters the digestive system through the mouth. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source Lesson 1-2

  12. Digestion (cont.) The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach—a flexible baglike organ that contains enzymes that break down food into smaller parts to be used by the body. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source Lesson 1-2

  13. Digestion (cont.) • The small intestine has two functions—digestion and absorption. • Nutrients are absorbed by the body through the small intestine. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source Lesson 1-2

  14. Digestion (cont.) The liver makes bile and the pancreas makes enzymes, both of which break down food in the small intestine. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source Lesson 1-2

  15. Digestion (cont.) • The large intestine receives solid waste from the small intestine. • The large intestine absorbs excess water from the waste material. • The rectum of the large intestine stores the solid waste until the waste is expelled from the body. Lesson 1-2

  16. Digestion (cont.) Some foods, like insoluble fiber, that are not digested leave the body through the rectum. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source Lesson 1-2

  17. Digestion (cont.) • Nutrients are the parts of food used by the body to grow and survive. • Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals are all nutrients. • Calories are a measure of the amount of energy in food. Lesson 1-2

  18. Excretion The excretory system removes liquid and gas wastes from the body. This system includes— • lungs • skin • liver • kidneys • ureter • bladder • urethra Lesson 1-2

  19. Excretion(cont.) • When the liver breaks down proteins, urea forms. Urea is toxic if it stays in the body. • The kidneys remove urea from the body by making urine. Lesson 1-2

  20. Excretion(cont.) • Urine leaves each kidney through the ureter and is stored in a flexible sac, called the bladder. • Urine is removed from the body through the urethra. Lesson 1-2

  21. How does food enter and leave the body? Lesson 1-2

  22. Respiration The respiratory system exchanges gases between the body and the environment. Lesson 1-3

  23. Respiration (cont.) • When you inhale, air enters the nostrils and passes through the pharynx to the trachea. • Inhaling and exhaling require the movement of a muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm. Lesson 1-3

  24. Respiration (cont.) The trachea, or windpipe, connects the pharynx to the bronchi. Lesson 1-3

  25. Respiration (cont.) There are two bronchi; one enters the left lung and one enters the right lung. Lesson 1-3

  26. Respiration (cont.) The bronchi divide into smaller tubes that end in tiny groups of cells called alveoli. Lesson 1-3

  27. Respiration (cont.) The alveoli are surrounded by blood vessels called capillaries. Lesson 1-3

  28. Respiration (cont.) Gas Exchange Lesson 1-3

  29. Respiration (cont.) vessel Science Use a tube in the body that carries fluids such as blood Common Use a ship Lesson 1-3

  30. Circulation • Oxygen in the alveoli enters the capillaries. • The blood inside capillaries transports oxygen to the rest of the body. Lesson 1-3

  31. Circulation(cont.) The heart, blood, and blood vessels make up the circulatory system which transports nutrients, gases, wastes, and other substances through the body. Image Source/Jupiterimages Lesson 1-3

  32. Image Source/Jupiterimages Lesson 1-3

  33. Circulation(cont.) • Blood vessels transport blood to all organs of the body. • Contractions of the heart’s muscles pump blood to the rest of the body. • Blood travels through the body in tiny tubes called vessels. Lesson 1-3

  34. Circulation(cont.) • Arteries carry blood away from your heart. • Veins carry blood back to your heart. Lesson 1-3

  35. Circulation(cont.) Capillaries are tiny vessels that allow gases and nutrients to move between the blood and the entire body. Lesson 1-3

  36. Circulation(cont.) How do nutrients travel through the body? Lesson 1-3

  37. Circulation(cont.) • The liquid part of blood is called plasma and contains nutrients, water, and CO2. • Blood also contains red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and platelets, which help the body heal when a vessel is cut. • White blood cells help the body defend itself from toxins and diseases. Lesson 1-3

  38. Different people have different proteins on the surfaces of their red blood cells which scientists classify into groups called blood types. Lesson 1-3

  39. Lymphatic System Tonsils, the spleen, the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes are parts of the lymphatic system. C Squared Studios/Getty Images Lesson 1-3

  40. Lymphatic System(cont.) • The lymphatic system’s three main functions are removing excess fluids around organs, producing white blood cells, and absorbing and transporting fats. • The lymphatic system helps your body maintain fluid homeostasis. Lesson 1-3

  41. Lymphatic System(cont.) • Fluid that travels through the lymph vessels flows into organs called lymph nodes, which protect the body by removing toxins, wastes, and other harmful substances. • The lymphatic system makes white blood cells to help the body defend against infection. Lesson 1-3

  42. Lymphatic System(cont.) Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that are made in the thymus, the spleen, and bone marrow. lymphocyte from Latin lympha, means “water”; and Greek kytos, means “hollow, as a cell or container” Lesson 1-3

  43. Immunity • Protection from infection or toxins is called immunity. • The skeletal system produces immune cells, which include lymphocytes and other white blood cells, and the circulatory system transports them throughout the body. • The immune cells attack and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances. Lesson 1-3

  44. Immunity(cont.) • Humans make billions of different types of antibodies. • Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, and are usually contagious. • A noninfectious disease is caused by the environment or a genetic disorder. Lesson 1-3

  45. Immunity(cont.) Lesson 1-3

  46. Immunity(cont.) • The body’s first line of defense against viruses, bacteria, and harmful substances is the skin and mucus which prevent toxins and other substances from entering the body. • The second line of defense is the immune response in which white blood cells attack and destroy harmful substances. Lesson 1-3

  47. Immunity(cont.) The third line of defense is immune cells which make antibodies that destroy harmful substances. How does the body defend itself from harmful invaders? Lesson 1-3

  48. The kidneys remove liquid wastes from the body. Lesson 1 - VS

  49. The circulatory system transports nutrients, gases, wastes, and other substances through the body. • Immune cells detect and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances. Lesson 1 - VS

  50. Which does NOT help remove waste from the body? A. kidneys B. liver C. lungs D. white blood cells Lesson 1 – LR1