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Methodological Innovations & Key Findings

Methodological Innovations & Key Findings

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Methodological Innovations & Key Findings

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  1. Methodological Innovations &Key Findings From the Women and Employment Survey Jean Martin Department of Sociology UNIVERSITY of OXFORD

  2. Innovations • Work and life histories • Classification of women’s occupations • Measure of occupational segregation at the workplace • Attitudes to work, jobs and roles • Complementary qualitative studies

  3. Work and life histories • Dates of key events: birth, marriage, end of marriage, births of children • Dates of changes between working full and part time and not working • Reasons for changes • Details of all jobs

  4. Economic activity by age (except FT students)

  5. % women working by age and birth cohort

  6. % of women returning to work by period of 1st birth

  7. Occupational segregation • Previous measures had been at national level • WES found much higher levels of segregation at workplace level • 63% of women worked in jobs only done by other women – • 58% of FT and 70% of PT workers • 81% of husbands worked in jobs only done by other men

  8. I II IIINM IIIM IV V Professional Teachers Nursing, medical, social Other intermediate n-m Clerical Sales Skilled manual Semi-skilled factory Semi-skilled domestic Other semi-skilled Unskilled Classifying women’s occupations: RG class and WES % 1 19 43 7 25 9 % 1 6 7 6 30 9 7 10 11 4 9

  9. Occupational mobility • 37% experienced downward mobility on returning to work after childbearing • 45% of women returning to work part time were downwardly mobile • compared with 19% returning full time

  10. Attitudes to working/not working If working: • Financial dependence on work • Intrinsic attractions of work • Coping with home and work If not working: • Feelings about not having a job • Financial need to work

  11. Findings • High financial dependence on work • Not just for ‘pin money’ • Non working women with children had higher financial stress • Most enjoyed work and were satisfied with their jobs • Hours of work and people at work more important than pay and prospects • Young childless women less satisfied

  12. General attitudes to women and work • Traditional attitudes to home and work • Benefits of work to women and family • Attitudes to women working with children of different ages • Psychological stress • Financial independence • Wives’ views of husband’s attitudes • Importance of various recent legal and policy changes

  13. Findings “A husband’s job is to earn the money; a wife’s job is to look after the home and family” 46% agreed (15% in 2002) “A married woman with children under school age ought to stay at home” 65% agreed (46% in 2002)

  14. Complementary qualitative studies • Using mixed methods wasn’t really innovatory even in 1980 • Qualitative research to inform research questions and questionnaire design • Qualitative follow-up studies to explore issues in detail • the meaning of ‘unemployment’ to those not working

  15. In conclusion The technological challenges My favourite survey ever!