First Aid. Emergency Situations. Signs of an Emergency: Unusual sights Unusual sounds Unusual odors Unusual appearances or behaviors Check the scene for safety before you help a victim and make sure you help the more seriously injured victims first. Check – Call – Care .
Emergency Situations Signs of an Emergency: Unusual sights Unusual sounds Unusual odors Unusual appearances or behaviors Check the scene for safety before you help a victim and make sure you help the more seriously injured victims first.
Check – Call – Care Check the scene for safety, is it safe for you to help the victim, is it safe for the victim to stay there? When to move a victim: scene is unsafe or becoming unsafe, You need to position the victim in order to perform a life saving skill. You need to move victims to get to the most seriously injured. Call 911 activate EMS Care provide care to the best of your knowledge and ability until more help arrives.
Good Samaritan Law Good Samaritan Law: Are laws or acts offering legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated. One: Obtain consent ask the victim if conscious or parents if victim is a child if you can help them. Two: Provide reasonable and prudent care using common sense. Three: Receive no benefits, compensation or rewards for your actions.
Obtain Consent Introduce yourself Explain your qualifications Ask permission if you can help Consent may be implied if an unattended patient is unconscious, delusional, intoxicated or deemed mentally unfit to make decisions regarding their safety, or if the responder has a reasonable belief that this was so.
Breathing Emergencies Asthma or other disease/illnesses Choking on food or object Allergic reactions Injury-related Hyperventilation (rapid and shallow breathing that can be caused by physical or emotional trauma. Can cause tingling into hands or feet.)
Signs of Breathing Emergencies Not breathing Victim is apprehensive or fearful Breathing is unusually slow or rapid/ deep or shallow Victim is gasping for breath, wheezing, gurgling or making high pitched noises Victim’s skin is flushed, moist, pale, ashen or bluish in appearance Victim feels short of breath, dizzy or lightheaded Victim feels chest pain or tingling in hands and feet
Heart Attack A heart attack usually occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood through a coronary artery — a blood vessel that feeds blood to a part of the heart muscle. The interrupted blood flow that occurs during a heart attack can damage or destroy a part of the heart muscle A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, can be fatal.
Heart Attack Signs of a Heart Attack: persistent chest pain or pressure unexplainable pain into shoulders, neck, back, jaw, arms shortness of breath or trouble breathing nausea dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting pale, ashen, or bluish skin sweating denial
Heart Attack Care for a heart attack victim: recognize signs Call 911 convince victim to stop activity and rest help victim rest comfortably obtain information on victim’s condition assist with prescribed medicine monitor victim’s condition prepare to give CPR if necessary
Injury Prevention – Risk Factors Facility Safety: Weather and environmental elements Items located in/on/around playing surface Wear and tear due to use Maintenance and upkeep Emergency Action Plan(s)
Injury Prevention – Risk Factors Equipment Method of storage Equipment condition Proper fit Availability Maintenance Use of equipment Education of use
Injury Prevention – Risk Factors Coaches Supervision On field Off field: Locker room, Conditioning time, On bus, Time between activity and time athlete gets picked up Quality of coaching: Educating and enforcing rules Preparation Education
Injury Prevention – Risk Factors Athletes Pre-participation physical exam Pre-season conditioning Following directions/instructions Wearing proper equipment Report injury to adult
Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) is special equipment you wear to create a barrier between you and germs Gloves: Most common Mask/ Eye protection Face shields Gowns PPE’s reduce the chance of touching, being exposed to, and spreading germs.
Disease Transmission Transmission: is the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected Methods of Transmission: Absorption Inhalation Ingestion Injection
Disease Transmission Caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites Prevention: Wash your hands Get vaccinated Cover open wounds Do not share personal items or use when providing care Avoid contact with bodily fluids Use personal protective equipment
Wounds Open Avulsion: Tissue that is cut like a laceration and then completely ripped from its source. Puncture: Is cause by a sharp object that penetrates the skin. Cut: The skin is cut sharply (incision) or skin is irregularly torn (laceration). Abrasion: The skin is scrapped away by a rough surface
Wounds Closed Contusion: (skin bruise) Due to a traumatic blow that compresses or crushes the skin surface and produces bleeding under the surface (skin). Blister: Friction over the surface of the skin causes a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer.
Wound Care Apply direct pressure to the wound until bleeding stops or slows. Clean the wound with soap and water or hydrogen peroxide. Debriding or cleaning the wound of any foreign objects. Apply antibacterial ointment if present. Apply clean gauze/bandage and dressing. Send for further care if needed, like staples or stitches.
Burns Burns result from excessive exposure to thermal (fire), chemical, electrical, or radiation (sun). First Degree: Superficial, least serious of the burns only the first layer (epidermis) of the skin is affected. The skin usually appears red.
Burns Second Degree: Partial thickness, both the first and second (dermis) layer of skin are affected. The skin is red and blisters may form. Third Degree: Full thickness, the most serious of the burns involves all layer of skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous) and causes permanent tissue damage. Fat, muscle, and bone may be affected too.
Musculoskeletal Injuries Fractures: A partial or complete interruption in a bone’s continuity. Types: Depressed, Greenstick, Impacted, Longitudinal, Spiral, Oblique, Serrated, Transverse, Comminuted, Avulsion
Musculoskeletal Injuries Dislocations: Are caused by forces causing the joint to go beyond it’s normal anatomical limit. Subluxation: Partial dislocation, an incomplete separation between two articulating bones occurs. Luxation: Are complete dislocations, a total disunion of bone apposition between articulating surfaces.
Musculoskeletal Injuries Sprains: A traumatic joint twist that results in stretching or total tearing of stabilizing connective tissue. Strains: Is a stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue such as the fascia or muscle tendons. Both use a 1-3 grading scale. 1 is slight stretching – 3 is a totally rupture of structure.
Musculoskeletal Injuries Signs of Musculoskeletal Injuries: Deformity Pain at site of injury Bruising or swelling Inability to use the affected part normally Numbness or tingling into extremity after injury Victim feels bones grating Victim or bystander heard/felt a pop or snap at time of injury Mechanism of injury leads you to believe an injury occurred
Musculoskeletal Injuries R.I.C.E for soft tissue injuries: Rest – Do not move the injury, relax Ice – Apply ice to the injury for 20 minutes at a time several times a day. Compression – Apply ACE wrap or sock to limit internal fluid collection in the area. Elevation – Elevate the injury above the heart to limit circulation to the area to minimize internal bleeding.
Musculoskeletal Injuries For breaks and dislocations splint as you find the injury. Immobilize body parts above and below injury site Check for signs of circulation (feeling warmth and color) after splint is applied Splint should be snug but not to cut off circulation
Head/Neck Injuries Signs of a Head and Neck Injury: Change in consciousness Numbness or tingling into hands or feet Loss of movement or arms or legs Breathing difficulty Vision problems Headache Loss of balance Blood from nose or ears or bleeding from head, neck or back Unusual bumps or depressions on head, neck or back Mechanism of injury leads you to believe there is head, neck or back injury Reports neck or back pain
Head/Neck Injuries Care of Head and Neck injuries: Call 911 Minimize movement of victim (keep victim from moving by using your hands) Monitor vitals Keep victim from becoming chilled or overheated Be prepared to use lifesaving skill
Internal Bleeding Bleeding inside the body due to trauma. Because bleeding cannot be seen, a rescuer needs to identify the signals: Tender swollen, hard areas of the body Rapid weak pulse Changes in skin color (blue, ashy) Vomiting or passing blood Excessive thirst Changes in consciousness Mechanism of injury leads rescuer to believe there is internal bleeding
Internal Bleeding Call 911/EMS Have victim rest Keep victim calm and comfortable Do not give them anything to eat/drink Help victim from getting chilled or overheated Elevate legs about 12 inches if it is safe to do so Monitor victim’s vitals
Common Signs of Sudden Illness Changes in consciousness Slurred speech Persistent pain or discomfort Nausea or vomiting Numbness or weakness Changes in skin color Loss of coordination or balance Changes in vision Changes in breathing Sweating
Recovery Position The recovery position is designed to prevent suffocation through obstruction of the airway, which can occur in unconscious supine victim. Place the victim lying on their Left side if: Conscious victim Unconscious victim Any victim who is breathing Any victim who you have to leave A vomiting victim
Fainting Syncope: Is fainting or passing out, is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, due to global cerebralhypoperfusion (low blood flow to the brain) that most often results from hypotension (low blood pressure)
Fainting Signs & Symptoms: dizziness, loss of vision, loss of hearing, loss of pain, sweating, palpitations, weakness, nausea, feeling heat, and loss of consciousness. Treatment: Help the victim to the ground, elevate feet 12 inches above head, call 911 if they do not improve
Stroke Stroke: occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or severely reduced, depriving brain tissue of oxygen and food. A stroke is a medical emergency. Prompt treatment is crucial. Early action can minimize brain damage and potential complications.
Stroke Signs & Symptoms: loss of balance or coordination, trouble with speaking and understanding, loss of vision, headache, and paralysis or numbness of the face, arm, or leg. Can be identified by FAST: Face: check face movement by having victim smile Arm: have victim raise both arms Speech: have victim say something to see if there is a change in speech Time: note time symptoms began Call 911 and get help immediately
Seizure Disorder Epilepsy: A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of cerebral function characterized by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activities, sensory phenomena, or inappropriate behavior caused by abnormal excessive discharge of cerebral neurons. Seizures can be caused by illness, injury, fever and pregnancy
Seizure Disorder Signs & Symptoms: Unconsciousness, uncontrolled tonic-clonic muscle contractions Treatment: Do not restrain the victim, lower victim to ground and remove nearby objects that may cause harm, protect victim’s head by placing something soft under it, If victim vomits place him/her on one side for mouth to drain
Poisoning Call Poison Control 1-800-222-1222 if the person is in stable condition. Call 911 immediately for the following symptoms: Having difficulty breathing or has stopped breathing Uncontrollably restless or agitated Having seizures Drowsy or unconscious
Poisoning Signs & Symptoms: Burns or redness around the mouth and lips, from drinking certain poisons Breath that smells like chemicals, such as gasoline or paint thinner Burns, stains and odors on the person, on clothing, or on furniture, floor, rugs or other objects in the surrounding area Empty medication bottles or scattered pills Vomiting, difficulty breathing, sleepiness, confusion or other unexpected signs Also any common sign from a sudden illness
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis: increased susceptibility or sensitivity to a foreign protein or toxin as the result of a previous exposure to it. A severe allergic reaction to a substance. May be caused by allergens which are; foods, pollens, drugs, clothing, dusts, plants, animals, heat, cold, or light.
Anaphylaxis Signs & Symptoms: Hives, itching or rash, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, breathing trouble, low blood pressure, shock, scared and apprehensive Treatment: Call 911 Victim should rest Monitor vitals Loosen restrictive clothing Assist victim if he/she has an epinephrine pen
Diabetes Diabetes is a disease where the body cannot produce enough insulin. Insulin regulates blood sugar Most diabetic emergencies are due to too much insulin in body and not enough sugar Victims will get drowsy, confused and not feel well, fruity smelling breath may be present as well. Give victim some form of sugar Call 911 If no improvement If victim goes or is going unconscious
Shock Shock occurs when a diminished amount of blood is available to the circulatory system, with this general collapse comes widespread tissue death and eventually death. Hypovolemic : Shock due to blood loss. Respiratory: Shock due to lack of oxygen in blood. Neurogenic: Shock due to dilation of the blood vessels in the cardiovascular system.
Shock Psychogenic: Shock due to reduction of normal amount of blood to the brain. Also know as fainting (syncope). Cardiogenic: Shock due to the inability to pump enough blood to the body. Septic: Shock due to severe infection (usually bacterial). Anaphylactic: Shock due to a severe allergic reaction Metabolic: Shock due to leaving a severe illness untreated or extreme loss of body fluids.
Shock Signs & Symptoms: Low blood pressure, rapid and weak pulse, respirations shallow and rapid, skin pale, cool, and clammy, drowsy or sluggish. Treatment: Call 911, maintain body temp, elevate legs above heart, keep patient calm and monitor vitals.
Heat Illness An elevated core body temperature due to dehydration, activity and hot and/or humid temperatures. Heat Cramps: Less severe, is painful muscle cramps due to dehydration and fatigue. Heat Exhaustion: illness due to sweat loss. Heat Stroke: medical emergency because tissues can no longer cool themselves. CALL 911
Heat Illness Signs & Symptoms: Heat Exhaustion - fatigue, dizziness, moist skin, headache. Heat stroke - dry red skin, unconsciousness, vomiting. Treatment: Move to a cool environment, remove clothing, cool victim down, and re-hydrate. CALL 911
Cold Illness Decreased body temperature due to cold, being wet, or wind. Hypothermia: Decreased core body temp. Frostbite: Due to prolonged and constant exposure to cold, the tissues become frozen.
Cold Illness Signs & Symptoms: Shivering, slurred speech, loss of coordination, slow thinking, and loss of consciousness Treatment: - Remove from cold Remove wet clothing Rewarm gradually (layers of clothing or heat) If conscious give warm beverages Call 911 for frostbite or if no improvement