Kaizen KaizenBasic Education Created on February 2011
1.What is Kaizen? The general meaning of Improvement (Kaizen) is to improve a thing that is in bad condition. The term Improvement in the manufacturing industry has the meaning of bottom up activities are carried out mainly by the factory workers. Summary: The activities of improving the production are to equip modifications, new tools and work to ensure the safety and operational efficiency of a production error proofing all over the area and to prevent problems related to quality production. Improvement is often described as Kaizen nowadays.When the expansion of Japanese manufacturing plants abroad, trainers were dispatched from Japan to teach the local staff. MIT researchers became the centre of the strength of Japanese manufacturing in the 1980s. Mari Hiroshi as well as overseas are one of the most important manufacturing industry in Japan. Through such result, Kaizen became the world-wide word in the world. In order to improve current facilities, quality of the machine and productivity, Field side’s wisdom, quality and the activity of increasing productivity are done.
1. What is Kaizen? • Production facilities that incorporate the wisdom, have a lead to others using the same equipment. 2. By making modifications on their own to suppress large-scale investment rather than just buying what you lack. 3. Improvement is not just working under the order of company but the characteristic of workers changing things out of their own wisdom. 4.Employers support a lot of QC-circle activities. Moreoverimprovement is not finished once but one after another, sustainability and continuity are important. Multiply time with money to get the effect. Effect Money×Time Value of improvement ＝ Increasing the value without paying out money but using the wisdom to.
2. The History of Kaizen The management system of Toyata is the first to incorporate and utilize the wisdom of the workers systematically to achieve achievements. The productivity in the field side, changing of the work methods in order to improve the quality and the jigs are used in any country and any era have been implemented with the immediate on-site productivity without spending money and improve the quality. 1. Sakichi Toyoda ・・・ ‘Automation with A Human Touch’ 2. Kiichiro Toyoda ・・・ Just-in-time (J.I.T) 3. Taiichi Ohno ・・・ Systemization of the production of Toyata Toyata is the first to incorporate and utilize the wisdom of the workers systematically to achieve achievements.
Reference 1. History and philosophy of Toyota Production System (Inventor) Taiichi Ohno (Executive Vice President ) Kiichiro Toyoda (Founder) Sakichi Toyoda ‘Automation with A Human Touch’ “Machine stops itself when a problem occurs” ‘JUST－IN－TIME’ "What is needed, when needed, as needed!" Introduction of ‘Toyota Production System’ Year 1942 “Elimination of waste” Install a device to stop the machine to stop automatically when abnormality occurs, then investigate the cause. Passenger Type AA (mass-produced passenger car type A1) production starts.Year 1936
Reference2. The Philosophy of Toyata Production • The success of the Toyota Production System is not just because of the tools of production management such as ‘Kanban’, ‘Kaizen’ etc., it is a culture or a system that can cultivate ideas and make good products day and night at the site by the carpenters. • Persist in on-the-spot decision-making TOP management A culture or a system of cultivating ideas. • The mechanic of lighting up Kaizen desire. • Process-oriented principles. (The changing of results depends on the luck by the time.) • The use of automation. This steady is the practice of maximum effort and because the results are influenced by the good or bad luck so do not be glad and sad by turns. (Process-oriented principles) The Toyata Production System is a transmission of the good Japanese traditions nowadays. “The sincerity and humanity itself is impossible without incident. However, the lack of them destroys everything.” Peter Drucker
Reference3. The Kanban System From the beginning until the last process, take only the required amount of the required items when required. Then, the earlier manufacturing process is to supply only the amount of production which was taken over. In this way, the Kanban method prevents over process while being a tool of putting the overall just-in-time into practice. 1. The origin of ‘one piece flow’ manufacturing 2. Following with the take-back process 3. Zero inventory 4. ‘Leveling work’ → Obey the cycle time 5. Do not make it so fast.
Reference4 “Automation with A Human Touch” Wisdom+ Automation = Automation with humans’ wisdom
Reference5. Muda (Waste) Elimination ‘Treasure things’ and ‘the thinking of do not waste’ are the origin of eliminating muda. 1. Muda of processing 2. Muda of inventory 3. Muda of overproduction 5. Muda of repair/rejects 6. Muda of transport 4. Muda of waiting
Reference 6.The Mind of Toyota's manufacturing "In a company when there is no race to get each person to add their good ideas to the work they do, I think this ruins people. Your improvements make the job easier for you, and give you time to make further improvements. Unlike in the [Charlie] Chaplin movie where people are treated as parts of a machine, the ability to 'add your creative ideas and changes to your own work' is what makes it possible to do work that is worthy of humans." Taiichi Ohno
3. The Kaizen Philosophy The world is constantly changing. Therefore, corporations as well as the people are changing, if countermeasures are not practiced, one cannot survive. At first, explore the changes that are under the constraints. There is an infinite ways of changing but in able to survive, change is finite. However, no one knows what is the BEST changing. Possibility for changes in BEST are hidden from thechanges in non-BEST. The valuation of whether it is BEST or not is, because the decision is made by the external world (customers), the decision itself cannot determine and be concluded. When the evaluation of the outside world is good, then that is the good one. Therefore, the first thing we need to do is to take action of the changes. Results will be known if action is taken, the next action can be taken if the results is analyzed. Countermeasure 1: Wear a coat. Countermeasure 2: Use the heating system. Countermeasure3: Move to a warmer place. Select the BEST option to fit the constraints. Getting cold.
3. The Kaizen PhilosophyTaking a serious view of the results or the process? For everything, it is not a big achievement if something successes according to the plan in our head. Because such a thing has always already been implemented.. The probability of successful is low, the thing no one wants to do, no one implements it and therefore, there is a value of trying. Then try to verify why failures occurred. Never give up and key to success is in it. “Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.” Thomas Edison
3. The Kaizen Philosophy According to the global changes, the method of work has to correspond in accordance with the corresponding reality. At first, grope for the correspondence in the constraints. ・New technology development ・Groundbreaking material development ・Moves of competitors ・Costumer needs ・Legal regulations Reality and constraint corresponding Kaizen A task is defined as a work to achieve a given objective. While Kaizen is defined as a better way to achieve the business objectives and make changes to a method.
4．How to proceed Kaizen? Organization. Management. Cogitation. 1) Organization: The continuity of developing the entire Kaizen organization. ・Membership ・Rules and regulations are made. 2) Management: Make an approachment and a mechanism to keep the management system on track and the activation of Kaizen activities. ・Select and train a leader. 3) Cogitation：Explain and make the employees consent to the definition of Kaizen. ・Kaizen education Organization is set up in order to continue the promotion system at the field level.
4. How to proceed Kaizen?Promote Kaizen to employees. 1. The way of thinking： Understand the meaning of Kaizen and urge the participation of Kaizen activities. 2. Enthusiasm： Set a notice board and premium for those who are actively involved. 3. Education： Educate the technology of efficiency improvement and methods. Thinking Education Enthusiasm Employees’ opinions, enthusiasm and education are necessary.
4. How to proceed Kaizen?Kaizen Implementation 1. Immediate implementation. Immediate action: If there is any problem, apply Kaizen on the spot. There are Kaizen chances if problems occurred especially when the problems only occur occasionally. Analyze the situation on the spot and investigate the problem. 2.Do not waste time: Do not conduct special meetings but instead proceed Kaizen. Seek advice from supervisors and seniors if there is something to consult and confirm. 3. Do not spend money: The resolution of trouble cannot be handled by money. The thinking of whether one can access alternatively cheap and available for carrying out present item as well as commercial item. 4. Suggestion from others: Seek suggestions from supervisors, seniors as well as managers from other departments. Start at once TimeisMoney Don’t Spend Money Two heads are better than one
5. Kaizen & Innovation Innovation The innovation type of revolution of the world leads to a contribution in development and spend a lot of time and money on invention. Also again, there are many developed, invented and copied items, profit as well as the members who are in charge of it comes to only have a small amount and it often does not occur. Characteristics: 1. It needs an enormous cost. 2.A long-term studies is needed. 3. Miscellanies do not occur frequently. 4. Easy to be imitated. 5. Planned implementation. (Analysis of present state, countermeasure, affirmation, evaluation) Invention of light bulb, print technology, airplane… Invention of internet, e-mail, Messenger… Invention of CD, personal computer, microwave…
5. Kaizen & InnovationIncreasing The Productivity Productivity can be improved by increasing the productivity which consumes a lot of time and money and it includes the members and all the field workers. Also, a good management system that is built is difficult to be imitated by other companies. Characteristics: 1. Huge sum of money and does not take time. 2. Possibility of educating the employees. 3. Can respond to daily problems. 4. Difficult to imitate. 5. Take actions immediately. Kaizen is a system, there is no point in learning techniques and their own individual cultures.
Loss management Loss management Loss management 5. Kaizen & InnovationThe Type of Innovation Ideal innovation pattern Actual innovation pattern Outbreak of innovation Outbreak of innovation “The organization or the system is an organization (or a system) that is to be finished begins to degenerate.” Parkinson’s law
5．Kaizen & InnovationQC Management& Facilities Management Loss management Loss management Ideal innovation pattern Reality innovation pattern Outbreak of innovation Loss management Outbreak of innovation In order to reduce loss management, QC management and facilities management are implemented to maintain and continue the status quo.
5. Kaizen and InnovationKaizen Loss management Loss management Loss management Kaizen Kaizen Kaizen Ideal innovation pattern Reality innovation pattern Kaizen pattern Outbreak of innovation Outbreak of innovation Kaizen is the better way to explore under restriction limits.
6. Practical Kaizen SystemWhat is Kaizen? Kaizen is about the changing of the method of work without hassles, without spending money and using the wisdom to make work easy, safe and fast. Also, write down notes of Kaizen and doing recording is important. If manifestation is being measured and communized with everyone is possible, a new Kaizen is born. Kaizen = Reality measures Enforcement • Without hassles • Without spending money • Using the wisdom Recording Communization
6. Practical Kaizen System Implementation • In order to promote Kaizen, the important thing is there must be implementation. • The traditional proposal system is going to be outdated in the future. The idea of ‘I am the proposer. You are the conductor. ’ does not work in the coming years. • Try to practice it if you have any idea. If the idea is not good, rethink and try again. Do Plan
6. Practical Kaizen System Of Record 1. Record the carried out Kaizen activity. 2. Content? 3. Effect? 4. The remaining challenges. Start with the recorded and datalysed work.
6. Practical Kaizen System Communization 1.Contact the other departments related to the implementation, discuss and communize the problem. 2. Provide education to the other departments. 3. Pose and review the problems. ‘Databaselized’, education materials Discuss with friends & superior authorities Kaizen types Implement Verification of effectiveness Communization Provides information to other departments Survey about IT & other departments
7. The Real KaizenThe Formula of Kaizen Value 【Standardization of the Pantograph Wear】 Overhead wires stretched diagonally in order to reduce the wear of the pantograph on the train and the contact part with overhead wires. • Does not take time. • Does not need money. • Does not trouble. Pantograph Track Direction of movement Aerial wiring Track V = Effect ÷(Money ×Time)
7. The Real Kaizen Simple Is The Best 1. If the work goes complicated, the mistakes will increase. 2. Consider the current situation and its original purpose of the work and determine if there is no waste. 3. Consider whether there are better ways or not. There are ways to achieve various objectives but select the best one according to the present state!
7. The Real Kaizen Eliminate The Unnecessary Works 1. To discern the necessary and unnecessary works. 2. Eliminate the unnecessary works to improve. 3. Focus on the primarily necessary work. 4. Attempt to improve the productivity and quality. Firstly, eliminate the unnecessary work at the beginning!
8. Standards of KaizenThe Know-How of Kaizen 『Stop』 ・Stop wasting ・Stop the unnecessary ・Stop the excessive 『Reduce』: Abolition ⇒ Reduce 『Add』 ・Change the point of view. ・Change the procedures and methods. ・Replace the materials and components. ・Change crisis into opportunity. ・Return to the origin o basics. Stop! Reduce ! Add ! Learn the standards of Kaizen and practice them at the site.
8. Standards of Kaizen 2 Types of Problems Unclear Not enough Unsafe Uncomfortable No ways Tools are hard to find Hard to place Hard to be seen Hard to grip There are only 2 problems: 『No』and 『Hard to~』. Therefore, there are only 2 measures: 『~tion』and 『Easy of~』.
8. Standards of KaizenThe 2 Measures Clarification Of sufficient Securing Of sound Tools are easy to find Easy to place Easy to be seen Easy to grip The only 2 measures : 『Of~』and 『 Easy to~』.
8. Standards of KaizenEmbodiment? Definite plan： Make it transparent. Change the direction. Change the position. Practice, take immediate action and put in habit on repeating asking the question why and find a better way to reification.
8. Standards of KaizenVisualization Make it larger. Make it visible. Make it brighter. Visualization Plans Kaizen in order to find the problems easily.
8. Standards of KaizenVisualization: Specific examples 危険 1. Make it larger 危険 2. Make it visible 3. Make it brighter Visualize the small problems earlier in order to avoid the occurrence of the big problems.
8. Standards of KaizenStationarized. Regularized. Stylized. 『Issue』 Problems of irregular, etc. uneven Must be adjusted 『Kaizen Implementation』 No adjustment needed ○-lized It consumes excessive time to fix the irregular pieces separately. Fixing is not needed if stationarized, regularized and stylized are done.
8. Standards of Kaizen~ized: Specific Examples 1. Stylized: Memo of phone messages Omission is not forgotten once you have completed the necessary items prepared beforehand in stylized form. 2. Stationarized: Tool board Decide where to place and eliminate the waste of searching.
8. Standards of Kaizen~ tion 『Issue』 Duplication, repetition and other problems Extra effort needed 『Kaizen Implementation』 Does not require extra effort ~tion 「Diversification」 Share the duplicated collaboration part of elements and conditions in advance. Strengthen the diversification according to the situation of things. However, there is an incompatibility in the mere diversification of the scattered and mixed. The basic part is to plan the collaboration and demonstrate the unique synergy. Identity Sharing Compatibility
8. Standards of KaizenCommon in-: Specific Examples 1. Communization: Caliber of the guns & bullets Decides if the diameter of a pre-caliber and the bullets are compatible. Musket 2. Collaboration: Basic PC software Models, manufacturer and the data can be collaborated. PC OS
8. Standards of Kaizen Centralized 『Issue』 Simultaneous occurrence of common tasks with huge organization Wasted effort needed 『Kaizen Implementation』 Centralized No wasted needed The duplicate of an element will be a complicated mess. For example, a huge waste is occurred when the size of an organization is expanding and it collects similar data and does the same thing as other departments. The waste of duplication can be omitted if "unify or centralize" is done. A B Centralized overlap C
8. Standards of KaizenOf~ : Specific Examples 1. List of ~: Checklist To list multiple items, check the waste to prevent leakage. 2. Centralization: Centralized the printing of the label, expiry date and bar code label of the product to reduce working process.
9. Education of Kaizen Ability 1. Education of employees and administrators are included. 2. Kaizen leadership education and training. 3. Learn from other departments: Lecturer from other department、other plant tour 4. Create case studies and information about Kaizen (Self study regarding to DVD and server usually.) “To send the people to battle without teaching them is to abandon them.” Confucius
9. Education of Kaizen AbilityExample of a Tabulation Plan Each participants create a Kaizen education plan.
9. Education of Kaizen Ability Learn from others • Learn information from other jobs and industries. • For this, learn it with the attitude of humble and obedient. • Do not learn anything from arrogance. • It is necessary to be aware of the problems. “The master said: “ When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them.” Confucius
9. Education of Kaizen Ability~ Education program ~ Education of entering a company Regular education External Education Entering a company • External education courses • Other plant tour • Presentation • Kaizen practical course • Kaizen basic courses • Kaizen basic practises Professional course 1) QC method 2) Measuring instruments 3) Equipment maintenance 4) IE 5) Conserve energy 6) Safety 7)PC・IT活用 Provides mental and technical education in order to improve the motivation and skills.
9. Education of Kaizen AbilityValuation& Qualifications Reference Case Increase the staffs’ motivation by introducing a licensing system and judicialized the valuations.
Kaizen Kaizen Collection of Cases Created of February 2011
1. Kaizen example: BoxingPresent condition Boxing heavy products. Issue: Arms are tired. Traditional thinking: 1. Get used to it very soon at first. 2.Try your best spirit! 3. There is no enjoyable job! Nothing perfects come into existence from the maintenance of the status quo.
1. Kaizen example: Boxing Of not in pain. Issue: The arms are in pain. Arms are in in pain? Why? 1. No strength.- Suggestion: Muscle-building 2. Heavy products.- Suggestion: Make them light. 3. Lifting - Suggestion: Make them do not need to be lifted. Make them do not need to be lifted. 1. Aiming of entering it on the top of the box. 2. Aiming of exceeding the height of the box. Why? Why? Why? Load
1. Kaizen example: BoxingKaizen approach 1 2. Drop from the top. 1. Slide into the box horizontally. Topic: Hard to do. Topic: Worry for the impact of falling. The approach of Kaizen is to find the optimal way in the innumerable constraints.