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Fire Extinguisher Training

Fire Extinguisher Training. Instructions For Use:. To load the fire extinguisher training program, click on the projection screen icon in the lower right hand corner of the screen. Environmental Health and Safety. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND. Fire Extinguisher Training.

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Fire Extinguisher Training

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  1. Fire ExtinguisherTraining Instructions For Use: To load the fire extinguisher training program, click on the projection screen icon in the lower right hand corner of the screen.

  2. Environmental Health and Safety UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND Fire ExtinguisherTraining

  3. OSHA Standard 1910.157 Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers

  4. NFPA Standard 10 National Fire Protection Association: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers

  5. All three elements of the fire triangle must be present for fire to occur Oxygen can come from the air or a chemical oxidizer Fire extinguishers function by removing one of the elements of the fire triangle Heat can also elevate the temperature of the fuel until it spontaneously combusts The three elements of The fire triangle are: Oxygen, Heat, and Fuel If any element of the fire triangle is removed the fire will go out Heat is usually the ignition source which ignites the flammable vapors The air contains 21% Oxygen To understand how fire extinguishers work, it is important to look at the chemistry of fire Fuel is that material which is heated to the point it is producing vapor. It is the vapor which burns. Chemistry of Fire Fire Triangle Oxygen Heat Fuel

  6. A more accurate depiction of the behavior of fire is The fire tetrahedron. The fourth side of the Fire Tetrahedron is an uninhibited chemical chain reaction Includes all of the characteristics of the fire triangle What is Fire? Fire Tetrahedron Fuel Oxygen Heat Chemical Chain Reaction

  7. How Fire Extinguishers Work • Water removes heat • CO2 removes oxygen • Dry Chemical interrupts chain reaction

  8. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Agents This is an ammonia based yellow powder used in ABC all purpose fire extinguishers This is a potassium based purple powder used in Flammable liquid fire extinguishing This is a bicarbonate of soda based white powder used in grease fire extinguishers and automatic systems • Mono-Ammonium Phosphate • Purple K • Bicarbonate of Soda

  9. Fire Extinguisher Classification

  10. Class “A” Fires Wood Paper Clothing Ordinary Combustibles

  11. Class “B” Fires Flammable Liquids Grease Fires

  12. Class “C” Fires Energized Electrical Equipment

  13. Class “D” Fires Combustible Metals D

  14. Using Fire Extinguishers • Pull Building Fire Alarm • Call University Police 711 • Know How To Use • Use Buddy System

  15. Never Put Yourself or Others in Danger! Do Not Use Fire Extinguisher If: • The fire has spread beyond • the point of origin • The fire is larger than a • waste basket • The extinguisher doesn’t seem • to have any effect on the fire

  16. Fighting the Fire • Keep back to exit • Check gage • Check nozzle • Make sure extinguisher • is right for type of fire • Keep low to avoid smoke

  17. Check The Gage • Should be in the • Green • Any other position • Should be recharged

  18. Fire extinguishers contain a gas to expel the agent. If the nozzle is blocked the hose can rupture causing injury. Check The Nozzle Make sure nothing is blocking the nozzle

  19. Pull the pin • Aim at the base of the • fire • Squeeze the trigger • Sweep at the base of • the fire, back and forth P A S S

  20. Aim at base of fire 10 ft

  21. If Your Cloths Catch Fire! Stop – Immediately where you are. Drop – To the ground. Roll – Over and over.

  22. Types Of Portable Fire Extinguishers At The University

  23. Water conducts electricity and spraying a stream of water into a fire involving energized equipment can cause serious shock Water does not work well with flammable liquid or energized electrical equipment fires Water extinguishers can not be located in areas that are not heated Pressurized Water • Limited Use • Subject to freezing • Electrical Shock • Hazard

  24. Air pressure forces water out through hose when handle is squeezed

  25. This extinguisher has no pressure gage. The agent is a gas. The only way to know if enough agent is inside is to discharge briefly Check the nozzle for obstructions. When the agent is discharged, the hose and nozzle may become very cold Carbon Dioxide is a gas which can displace oxygen in a confined area and cause asphyxiation While carbon dioxide does’ extinguish flammable liquid fires, if surfaces are hot, a flash back fire can occur This is a gas and does not leave any residue which might damage sensitive electrical equipment Carbon Dioxide CO2 • Flammable liquids & • sensitive electrical • equipment • No gage • Check hose & nozzle

  26. Point horn or nozzle at base of fire and discharge. Be careful not to touch “frosted” areas of hose and nozzle.

  27. Halon & Halon Replacements • Displaces Oxygen • No Residue to Damage • Equipment • Twice as Effective as • Carbon Dioxide

  28. Dry Chemical Chemical is not toxic, but could cause problems for people with respiratory problems Works well on Class A, B, and C fires. Does leave a corrosive residue that can damage equipment Check gage before using and make sure hose is in good shape and nozzle is not obstructed • Most common • Has pressure gage • Chemical is non-toxic

  29. Uses nitrogen gas to expel the dry chemical. Do not breath powder if it can be helped

  30. DATE By DATE By Monthly Inspection Record • Every extinguisher • should have a tag • Extinguishers should • be checked monthly • Record date of • inspection • Initial in space 12-14-00 EHS-CC

  31. Fire Extinguisher Cabinets Cabinets should not be locked or obstructed

  32. The four elements of the fire tetrahedron include which of the following: • A) sodium, oxygen, fuel, electricity • B)oxygen, fuel, chemical chain reaction, fire • C)oxygen, fuel, chemical chain reaction, heat • D) fuel, chemical chain reaction, heat, water

  33. Water fire extinguishers function by removing which of the following from the fire tetrahedron? • Electricity • B) Fuel • C) Oxygen • D) Heat

  34. Dry Chemical fire extinguishers function by removing which of the following from the fire tetrahedron? • Chemical chain reaction • B) Fuel • C) Oxygen • D) Heat

  35. Ordinary combustible materials such as paper, cloth, and wood are classified as which of the following type of fire? • Class D • B) Class B • C) Class C • D) Class A

  36. Energized electrical equipment is classified as which of the following type of fire? • Class C • B) Class A • C) Class D • D) Class B

  37. Flammable liquids are classified as which of the following type of fire? • Class A • B) Class C • C) Class B • D) Class D

  38. Which of the following should be done before using a portable fire extinguisher? • Check the gage • B) Make sure it’s the proper type • C) Keep your back to the exit • D) All of the above

  39. Fire extinguishers should be checked at which of the following intervals? • Semi-annually • B) Monthly • C) Every two years • D) They do not require checking

  40. Fire Triangle The fire triangle has been used for many years to describe the process that occurs with fire. Three elements are required for fire to take place, oxygen, heat, and fuel. Without any one of these elements you cannot have fire. Fire extinguishers are designed to remove one or more of the elements, which results in the fire being extinguished. Oxygen and heat are the easiest to remove. Fuel is much more difficult. Therefore, fire extinguishers do not remove the fuel, they remove oxygen or cool the fuel to the point the fire can no longer burn.

  41. Fire Tetrahedron In order for fire to occur the fire triangle theory presented three things that must be present, Oxygen, Fuel, and Heat. New research indicates that the fire triangle does not tell the whole story. In addition to the oxygen, heat, and fuel that must be present, a Chemical Chain Reaction also takes place.  These four elements are represented by the Fire Tetrahedron.  When any of the four items are removed, the fire will go out.   Fire extinguishers function by removing one of the four components of the Fire Tetrahedron. 

  42. How Fire Extinguishers Work Water extinguishes fire by cooling the fuel to below its ignition temperature. Water has a great ability to absorb heat. Carbon dioxide gas acts by displacing the oxygen in the air that the fire needs to burn, and the fire goes out. Without oxygen in the air for fire, there is also no oxygen to support life. Care needs to be exercised when using carbon dioxide extinguishers in confined areas. Dry chemical fire extinguishers work by interrupting the chemical chain reaction and the fire goes out.

  43. Types of Dry Chemical A, B, C all purpose dry chemical fire extinguishers use mono-ammonium phosphate as an extinguishing agent. It is non-toxic but can cause problems for people with respiratory problems. It leaves a corrosive residue that can damage sensitive electrical equipment. Purple is a very effective, expensive extinguishing agent that is primarily used in aircraft and flammable liquid firefighting. Soda bi-carbonate is used for cooking fires. It has a characteristic which allows it to coat the surface of the cooking oil and keep the fuel from reaching oxygen to burn.

  44. Classification of Fires Fires are broken down into four types for the purpose of classifying fire extinguishers. Class A involves ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper, plastics, and cloth. Class B is flammable liquids including gasoline, diesel fuel, grease, and others. Class C involves energized electrical equipment. Class D is combustible metals, like potassium, sodium, magnesium, and others. It is important that the right type of extinguisher is chosen when a fire occurs to insure the fire can be quickly extinguished. The classification is clearly marked on the fire extinguisher label.

  45. Using Fire Extinguishers Safely Nothing inside of a building is more important than someone’s life. Fire extinguishers should only be used by persons who have been trained. They should only be used on small fires still in the area of origin. If the fire has moved beyond the area of origin, everyone should evacuate the building and allow the sprinkler system or fire department extinguish the fire. Make sure when using a fire extinguisher your exit or way out is behind you. If that is not possible, evacuate, do not attempt to extinguish the fire. Make sure the fire extinguisher is the proper type for the class of fire. Check the gage and hose for proper operation.

  46. Pull The Pin The pin in the fire extinguisher handle prevents the squeezing of the handle and accidental discharge of agent. Pull the pin and discard before using the fire extinguisher. The pin is usually held in place with a plastic rope and can be easily pulled out breaking the rope. If you have difficulty pulling the pin, it may help to place the extinguisher on the ground and place your foot on the cylinder for leverage while pulling the pin.

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