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Social stratification

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Social stratification

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    1. social stratification Social stratification refers to the process whereby people are systematically ranked based on their access to valued resources. Open system: ranking is based on achieved status. e.g. class system Closed system: ranking is based on ascribed status. e.g. caste system

    2. Social mobility: Movement from one social stratum to another: upward mobility vs downward mobility; horizontal mobility vs vertical mobility Open system: high level of social mobility Closed system: low level of social mobility Measure of social mobility: Intragenerational mobility: movement within ones lifetime Intergenerational mobility: compare ones status with that of their parents

    3. Structural mobility: Movement is caused by large scale social change. For example: In the past 30 years, massive changes in the economic structure of society enable children from blue collar families rise into middle class white collar workers. Relative mobility: ones position relative to other people in society compared with that of the parent For example: when compare with others in society, these children may find themselves still in the same stratum as their parents.

    4. Bases of Social Stratification Economic dimension: property, income (Marx) Political dimension: power, authority (Weber) Cultural dimension (micro level): social prestige (as expressed by deference and demeanor) (Weber) Marx: classes Weber: status groups

    5. Stratification systems 1. Slavery system: The Slavery in the New world: hereditary, permanent, ideology support: racism, legal system to enforce it.

    6. 2. Caste system: most closed, position hereditary, permanent, ideology(religion) is used to justify the system, endogamy is practiced, no mobility allowed. 3. Estate system: land ownership determine position: e.g. in medieval Europe: nobility, merchant, peasants, hereditary in nature, but some kind of mobility is present. 4. Class system: most open, in industrial society. Occupation determines position.

    7. Marx defined social class only in economic terms: the ownership of the means of production The owner class vs the non-owner class (the rich vs the poor) Under the capitalist mode of production: bourgeoisie vs proletariat Max Weber: should add power and social prestige in the study of social stratification Status group instead of social class

    8. 1. Functionalist 2. Conflict 3. Interactionist

    9. Why Ranking? Functionalist: Why: functional part of society: keep order/balance, incentives/motivation, How: based on importance of jobs, performance and qualification, So stratification is necessary, beneficial, needed in society. Criticism: demoralizing/inhibiting factors; difficult to determine the importance of jobs; Family social economic background determines childrens achievement instead of performance; Do we need so much difference to motivate people to work?

    10. Conflict theory Why: Caused by competition, conflict for resources, justifies inequality, benefits only the powerful. How: based on the exploitation and oppression of the poor by the rich and powerful; limits life chance and potential, generate hostility. Evil, needs to be eliminated. Criticism: it is a universal feature of all human society. It is inevitable in a competitive world. Never can be eliminated: George Orwell: We are equal, but some are more equal than others People do need incentives to work.

    11. Convergence theory Lenski: ecological perspective: Surplus is the key: in societies without surplus, functionalist theory is right; In societies with surplus, conflict theory is right.

    12. Symbolic Interactionist Why: Society tends to give meaning to action and materials: ranking is a construction of reality in peoples mind and is based on peoples perception of their life How: Cultural values and beliefs lead to Lifestyle differences: e.g. demeanor and deference consequences: Self-fulfilling prophecy, stereotyping Cultural Analysis of Poverty: different beliefs, values, norms passed through generations cause a hard to break cycle of poverty.

    13. Ideologies are used to justify stratification. Socialization for the legitimacy of inequality Ideological hegemony: the dominant class forces lower class groups to accept the ideas of the ruling class to maintain control. Endogamy: marry within their own groups. Information: professionalization Technology: education Social network: links for support

    14. Karl Marxs on Social Class Based on the ownership of the means of production In capitalist societies: bourgeoisie vs proletarians class consciousness: awareness of your class position, and identifying with people who are in the same class position --? subjective class ---> organize political associations -? rebel, revolution -? classless society. False consciousness: workers mistakenly identity with the powerful and accept what the dominating class want them to believe.

    15. Why low class consciousness in America 1. Lack of inherited aristocracy 2. America experienced economic progress in the past 200 years. 3. Other factors such as race, religion, nationality, ethnicity cut across social class factors. 4. Psychological reductionism: attribute achievement to personal attributes. 5. Promise of equal opportunity.

    16. Multi-dimensional Stratification:e ideologies on property: social class gender: gender roles age: ageism race: racism ethnicity: ethnocentrism Point: Stratification has various dimensions. Social class is just one of them. International stratification: nations are ranked

    17. International Stratification: Global System The world is working as a single economic system in which different nations play different parts in terms of division of labor. Three economies: (division of labor) primary economy: take resources directly from nature: farming, mining, fishing secondary economy: turn raw materials into usable/saleable goods: manufacturing tertiary economy: service providing and information processing

    18. Global system

    19. Global system: The whole world has become a single economic system in which different nations play different roles and ranked accordingly. Primary economy: farming, fishing, forestry, take resources from nature. Secondary economy: turn the raw materials into usable and saleable goods. Tertiary economy: providing service and processing information

    20. How the global system work? Trade and exchange: unequal, conditional Multinational corporations: neocolonialism Effects on societies: The third world countries become more dependent. The economic gap between nations becomes larger. Disturb the natural development of national economy. Hamper the development of national economy of every country. Increased inequality level in the third world countries. Long term negative effect:

    21. The effects of the global system on individual lives in America: Displaced manufacturing workers: closed factories, lay-offs: unemployment: deindustrialization Increase in service jobs, increase in professional jobs. Low paying service jobs make middle class shrinking Increased womens labor force participation Education more important Inequality level going up

    22. Factors responsible for the global economy: The gap in development level between nations as a result of industrialization. Environmental factors: the depletion and availability of natural and human resource. Political factors: peaceful, favorable for exchange and international trade Technology: transportation, information flow faster through microelectronics, computerization.