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Professor Priyantha D.C. Wijayatunga Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka PowerPoint Presentation
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Professor Priyantha D.C. Wijayatunga Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka

Professor Priyantha D.C. Wijayatunga Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka

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Professor Priyantha D.C. Wijayatunga Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Barriers to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in Developing Economies like Sri Lanka and Strategies to Overcome them Professor Priyantha D.C. Wijayatunga Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka & University of Moratuwa

  2. Sri Lanka Power Sector • Installed Capacity - 2168 MW • Large Hydro - 1185 MW • Thermal - 909MW (oil fired) • Wind - 3 MW • Small-hydro - 74MW • Biomass fired- 1MW • Off-grid Systems (2003)- 10 GWh • small-hydro- 4MW (160 systems) • Solar PV- 2.2MW (53,000 SHS) • Wind 25 systems • Maximum Demand - 1580 MW • Total Generation - 8430 GWh • Annually Demand grows at 8-10% • Doubles in Every 10 years

  3. Generation Mix

  4. Cleaner Technologies • Mini/Micro-hydropower • Wind • Biomass Fired • IGCC – Coal • LNG

  5. Identification of barriers • Policy makers • Developers • Researchers/Academic community • Financiers • Environment regulators • Representatives of environment protection advocacy groups

  6. Main Barriers Identified • Wind • High initial cost • Lack of financing instruments • Seasonal variations in wind speeds • Lack of wind measurements • High overall unit cost of energy • Dendro • Lack of feed stock assurance • Unclear government policy • Insufficient knowledge about energy plantations • Lack of awareness about the technology • Lack of financing instruments

  7. LNG • Uncertainty about fuel price stability • High initial cost • Lack of a clear policy • Insufficient demand for electricity • High fuel cost • IGCC • High initial cost • Negative public opinion about coal • Dependency on imported fuel • Lack of clear policy • Not a proven technology

  8. Criteria to Rank • Cost to Remove the barrier • Effort required to create an awareness • Political/ Bureaucratic effort required to overcome the barrier

  9. Stakeholder Groups & Weight • Policy Makers 0.25 • Energy/ Env. Experts 0.25 • Utility 0.25 • Developers/ Financiers 0.15 • Users 0.10

  10. Survey • Personal visits • Used a questionnaire filled by the stakeholder • Used Analytic Hierarchy Process to analyze the responses

  11. Ranking of Barriers Policy Makers Energy / Env. Experts Utility Developers / Financiers Users Cost to Remove the Barrier Effort to Create Awareness Level of Political Effort Barrier 1 Barrier 2 Barrier 3 Barrier 4 Barrier 5 Hierarchy

  12. Ranking • Wind • High overall unit cost of energy • Seasonal variations in wind speeds • Lack of financing instruments • Biomass Fired Thermal • Lack of feed stock assurance • Lack of financing instruments • Lack of awareness about the technology

  13. LNG • Uncertainty about fuel price stability • High initial cost • Insufficient demand for electricity • IGCC - Coal • Not a technology widely used • Lack of clear policy • Dependency on imported fuel

  14. Strategies • Wind • Existing • 3MW pilot project to demonstrate the technology • Calling for expressions of interest – 20MW installation • Wind mapping under UNDP and USAID project • Proposed • Designing production incentives • Geographical diversification of plants to iron out seasonal variations • Wind diesel systems • Capacity building in Commercial banks on the technology

  15. Biomass fired thermal • Existing • Developed under SPPA • 1MW pilot project • Research on energy plantations • Proposed • Detailed research to identify specific sites and potential • Designing production incentives • Building awareness among the farming community on energy plantations • Streamline wood collection mechanisms

  16. LNG & IGCC • Existing • Least economic cost expansion planning methodology • Cleaner aspects of these technologies are not recognised • Proposed • Incorporate environmental cost in the planning process • Awareness building on the technology and import dependency

  17. Thank You Acknowledged • WJLS Fernando, Prof Ram M Shrestha Prof Rahula Attalage, Kanchana Siriwardena • Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association • Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand • University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka • Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency