Developing Literacy Skills for A2 essay writingContext- Subcultural Theory of Crime
Self Review Go back over your answer and identify your targets to work on in your next piece of writing. You may wish to apply the following ‘success criteria’ to help with this.
Top Tip: Structure Introduction ‘set the scene’ Separate paragraphs on key points (using PEELE structure) Body Evaluation/ analysis Conclusion
Evaluation • Challenge ideas • Strengths and weaknesses • Contrast views B/A Developing AO2 Literacy Skills C/B • Application/Analysis/Synthesis • Relevancy • Focused points • Links • Evidence/illustration • Deconstruction of a debate C • Understanding/Explanation • Meaning D Knowledge - Relevant concepts/studies etc
Mastering Skills in Sociology • PEEEL is vital for displaying AO2 skills • To present a solid case against chivalry thesis, you should : • Aim to include a ‘range’ of points • Use PEEEL format to structure a paragraph = point State the point = explain Give an explanation of the point = example Illustrate with examples/studies = evaluate Offer a criticism/disadvantage of factor = link Relate to the issue in the question
Mastering Skills inSociology Using PEEEL to organise a paragraph In sociology, PEEEL is probably best presented in the following order: Point – Explain – Example – Link - Evaluation Example of using the PEEEL model in your socialisation essay One point emphasised by Durkheim is the way that deviance can be functional for society. It can help to reinforce boundaries in society, for example, we need to be reminded of the extremes of evil like rape and murder. It also helps to test boundaries and help to cause social change, such as Nelson Mandela and his actions to end apartheid in South Africa. A further function is in how punishment unifies a community, this was shown in the case of the murder of Lee Rigby on the streets of London, people are joined in their anger and desire for justice. Another function is how it helps to single out individuals from wider society, those who maybe a risk to us. The functions of deviance can be highly beneficial and not just be a bad thing in society. However, Durkheim can be criticised as he ignores the impact of crime on victims –surely that cannot be positive. He also fails to explain where the laws come from in society and how benefit the powerful more. He also does not consider how the media may lead to copycat crimes.
Apply the success criteria to the following paragraph (in pairs) • What would you grade it (and why)? • How could it be improved? Rewrite this paragraph to make it stronger
Mastering Skills inSociology Using PEEEL to organise a paragraph In sociology, PEEEL is probably best presented in the following order: Point – Explain – Example – Link - Evaluation Durkheim says that crime can have positive functions for society. One way is by reinforcing boundaries and supporting shared values in society. It also can test boundaries, as some crimes may be needed to make change happen in society. Another way is how the media can help to bring drama to punishment. Even in a society of saints crime would happen as it is inevitable and good. Durkheim can be criticised as he ignores the power in society, who controls biased laws and invisible crime.
Planning the subcultural theory essay “Assess the usefulness of functionalist subcultural theory to an understanding of crime and deviance in society” (21 marks)
Study the following points that could be included in the essay • Study the cards carefully • Put them into an order for the essay • Add the following where you can: - explanations - examples - evaluation points
Definition of subculture Working class culture Albert Cohen Source of status Advantages of subcultural theory Illegitimate Opportunity Structures Career path Failure at school Juvenile delinquency Explain links to Merton Cloward & Ohlin Matza Challenge authority Working class neighbourhoods Rebellion Focal Concerns disadvantages of subcultural theory Status Frustration Conclusion Group behaviour
Definition of subculture Albert Cohen Status Frustration Explain links to Merton Rebellion Group behaviour Source of status Juvenile delinquency Failure at school Advantages of subcultural theory Miller Cloward & Ohlin Working class culture Career path disadvantages of subcultural theory Focal Concerns Illegitimate Opportunity Structures Matza Working class neighbourhoods Conclusion
Plenary Using the 2 post its provided: • Note any skills/knowledge that you have developed today • Anything that you would like further help with to develop your writing style
Grade A/B target – contrasting theories How can the following be used to challenge or support Functionalist Subcultural theories? Ecological Theory Examine the links between geographic area and crime. They note the way that urban areas are linked to crime. They stress the importance of community for reducing crime by strengthening bonds that help to control behaviour. Labelling Theory Stress how the police are biased and patrol more working class areas. They note how the self-concept of people is affected when they are labelled and this can make deviance increase. They note how deviants form subcultures when rejected by society. Marxist Theory Note how crime is caused by capitalism. How it causes inequalities and greed which lead to deviance. They note how middle class and rich people commit crime but they tend to avoid getting detected. They also see the laws as biased and helping to control the working class.
Grade C target – getting the evaluation right Before your conclusion – set aside 2 paragraphs. One to cover the strengths of subcultural theory. • Include at least 3 • Use these concepts/ideas: status frustration, career, identity, mindless deviance One to cover weaknesses of subcultural theory. • Include at least 3 • Use these concepts/ideas: too deterministic, transient, middle class crime