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SKILL LEARNING. l earning v performance. PERFORMANCE: A temporary occurrence fluctuating over time, something which is transitory. LEARNING: A relatively permanent change in performance resulting from practice or past experience. . Stages of learning. 1. Cognitive 2. Associative

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  2. learning v performance • PERFORMANCE: • A temporary occurrence fluctuating over time, something which is transitory. • LEARNING: • A relatively permanent change in performance resulting from practice or past experience.

  3. Stages of learning 1. Cognitive 2. Associative 3. Autonomous • Watch the following clip and take notes on each of the stages of learning listed above http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8QZzvhkIyQ

  4. Stages of learning • list 2 sports or skills that YOU feel you’re at for each of the 3 stages of learning. • Cognitive: ____________ & _____________ • Associative: ___________ & _____________ • Autonomous: __________ & _____________

  5. Learning Curves • Linear learning curve • When learning an easy-to-perform skill • Usually rare

  6. Learning Curves • Positively accelerated curve: • Skill difficult to learn at first • Slow progress, then quick improvement

  7. Learning Curves • Negatively accelerated curve: • Quick learning at first • Learning then slows down

  8. Learning Curves • Plateau effect: • Learning is positive • Then a period with no improvement • Keep practicing & more learning is demonstrated

  9. Transfer of Training • When practice from one task impacts the learning or practice of another. • POSITIVE TRANSFER: practice of one task facilitates the learning of another • NEGATIVE TRANSFER: practice of one task inhibits the learning of another • ZERO TRANSFER: when there is no effect See table 5.3 page 124

  10. PRACTICE • MONOTONIC: as the amount of practice increases, so does the rate of learning. • Rates of learning will level off (plateau). • Over-practice & incorrect technique will negatively affect learning.

  11. PRACTICE • Perception & memory play important roles in practice (short & long term memory) • The more past experience & practice a person has should = more accuracy of the movement.

  12. Types of Practice • Can differ according to the intervals between the trials. • MASSED PRACTICE: • Little or no gaps in practice • Intervals are shorter than the time taken to perform the task e.g. 40minutes spent practicing shooting at goal in hockey *Consider the task & the group

  13. Types of Practice • DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE: • Practice interspersed with rest or a different activity • Intervals between trials longer than the time taken to complete a trial • May lead to better performance as less fatigue & boredom e.g. shooting practice in B’ball, interspersed with short scrimmages *Consider the task & the group

  14. Types of Practice • BLOCKED PRACTICE: • 1 movement repeated over & over • Drill like fashion • Can lead to quick improvements e.g. 5 sets of 10 forearm ground strokes in tennis with a few minutes rest in-between each set

  15. Types of Practice • RANDOM PRACTICE: • Practice of 1 movement is randomly interspersed with practice of other movements e.g. a learner golfer may vary the club & type of shot played during practice: small chip shot; full swing; put etc.

  16. Types of Practice • SERIAL PRACTICE: • Practice of different movements in a structured, consistent order e.g. volleyballer must practice the dig, set and spike in the same order each time

  17. Types of Practice Research shows that random practice is more effective than blocked practice for learning Find out why?..... DC&P and C&E lab design: juggling

  18. Whole v Part Practice • WHOLE Practice • Practice the movement in its entirety • Used more when parts of the skill are performed simultaneously e.g. tennis serve • PART Practice • Skill is broken down into its parts • When parts of the skill are consecutive, it can be broken up. • Whole-part-whole e.g. basketball lay-up Read p.127

  19. Variable Practice • Variable practice increases the effectiveness of learning a skill – at any level! • Fundamental movement remains the same • Variety is created with the task or environment e.g. throwing a ball at diff targets, at diff heights, at diff angles

  20. Variable practice & schema • Schema theory = storing information about specific features of a movement. • e.g. timing, limb coordination • These features are known as generalized movement programs (GMP’s) • Variable practice develops a learners ability to control the GMP

  21. Variable practice & schema • Information gathered during practice: • Initial conditions • Response specifications • Sensory consequences • The outcome • This information creates & strengthens schema that apply to GMP’s.

  22. Variable practice & schema • Do you think variable practice is more helpful for open or closed environment skills? • Explain your answer… • What is functional variability? p.128

  23. Mental practice • Mental rehearsal • Thinking about specific components of a movement without actually performing it • Aids performance by increasing understanding & practices the cognitive components

  24. Mental practice • Mental rehearsal ONLY works in conjunction with physical rehearsal • The 2 (mental & physical) combined = faster learning

  25. Mosston’s spectrum of teaching • 11 styles of teaching in PE & coaching • A – K • See figure 5.12 p.129 • A-E = Reproductive cluster • Direct, didactic teacher-centered approach • Perform, repeat & reduce error • Feedback is specific

  26. Mosston’s spectrum of teaching • A-K = productive cluster • Involves discovery of information by the learner • Democratic style • Problem solving, comparing, inventing etc by the learner • Feedback refers to the production of new ideas.

  27. Factors affecting learning • Develop a table comparing & contrasting the 3 styles of teaching: A, C & H • To think about.. p.131 • Complete the handout for homework (formative assessment)

  28. Motivation • To learn, one must be motivated! • Includes direction (what you choose); intensity (how hard you work); persistence (how long you work at it for). • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6xLYt265ZM

  29. Motivation • Explain the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. • What sports/activities are you intrinsically motivated to do? Please explain. • What sports/activities are you extrinsically motivated to do? Please explain. • Which type of motivation will encourage long term interest and participation? Why?

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