Effective Behavioral Support Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plans
Does A Focus On Universal Systems At The School-Wide Level Detract From Serving Students Through The FBA-BIP Process?
Problem: Overemphasis on “Jumping Through the Hoops” • In order to get this student to another placement we have to do a functional assessment. • Not invested in the process as it often came too late and/or staff had little knowledge of functions of behavior • FBA/BIP are filed away
How Has School-wide PBIS Helped The FBA Process? • Provides a positive school culture • Focus on data driven decision making • Use of research based strategies • Provides on-going training towards understanding functions of behavior
Objectives • Look at how PBIS related products and procedures assist in development of FBA/BIP • What helped staff get involved in FBA and BIP development • Examine documents developed • Follow a case study on FBA/BIP
What Can Help Our Teams? • Give minimum training about functions of behavior to variety of staff • Get teacher involvement early on in process • Structure the process so it is more than just paperwork; easier,but still comprehensive
The objective of a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is not to define and eliminate an undesirable behavior…..
….BUT TO UNDERSTAND THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THAT BEHAVIOR IN ORDER TO TEACH AND DEVELOP EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVES Clausen, B.J., Delaney, M., and Schiappacusse, J., (1992)Colorado Behavior Support Project, Colorado Department of Education
Strategies based on a functional assessment. The focus is on understanding why the behaviors occur. Behavior is viewed as context related. Strategies are proactive. They take place when the student is not engaging in the challenging behavior. The purpose is to make the desired behaviors more probable. There is focus on teaching replacement behaviors Support is long term. The focus is on maintaining an increase of the desirable behaviors Strategies are based on the diagnostic category. Strategies are reactive. They take place when the behavior is occurring. To provide support, they wait for the behavior to occur. The purpose is to make undesirable behaviors less probable. The focus is on suppressing behavior. Strategies are short term. The focus is on crisis management. Functional Non-Functional
To get something (positive reinforcement) Social Attention Assistance with task A tangible object Sensory stimulation Belong to a peer group Revenge To avoid or escape (negative reinforcement) Academic tasks Demands Environmental stress/social stress Failure Boredom What Are Functions Of Challenging Behavior?
When To Complete A FBA/BIP? IDEA 1997 states that a FBA and (BIP) may be required forstudents with a disability: • Who are exhibiting a pattern of behavior that may lead to 10 days of suspension • Who knowingly carry weapons or possess or use illegal drugs or sell or solicit the sale of a controlled substance while at school or a school function And is required when: • A student is suspended from school for a total of 10 days or more • A student is being considered for an interim alternative educational placement
When Should A FBA/BIP Be Completed? Best practice suggests that FBA’s are more effective when used proactively When behavior is difficult to understand When a pattern of office referrals appear When behavior strategies that are currently in place are not effective towards increasing appropriate behavior
AARON Student:6th grader with ADHD, new to the school; reading difficulties Problem Behavior: Teasing, taunting, name calling(disruption),physical interactions in hallways (aggression)lack of work completion(noncompliance) Setting: General education classes, sp.ed resource class. School uses tickets for Respect, Responsibility, Ready.
Using SWIS data: Individual Student • Referrals by student report (who) • Individual Student Report (what, where, when) • Custom Report/Custom Graph • Motivation activated(why) • Help in hypotheses statements
FBA is a Systematic process which involves: • Describing challenging behaviors • Identifying antecedent predictors of behavior (triggers) • Examining consequences that could be maintaining the behavior • Developing hypothesis about the function of the behavior (why the behavior occurs)
How Are The Outcomes Of The FBA Used? The results of the FBA are used to develop a behavioral intervention plan (BIP), which consists of four basic parts: • Strategies for teaching appropriate behavior (replacement behavior) • Strategies for manipulating antecedent events • Positive consequences for reinforcing positive behaviors • Consistent consequences for responding to problem behaviors
How is the Functional Assessment Conducted? • Team operationally defines the target behaviors (focus on only 3-4 behaviors) • Decide on data collection measures • Collect data on target behaviors • Meet to analyze the data, look for patterns and relationships between events that occur prior to the behavior (antecedents) and events that occur as a result of the behavior (consequences) • Make hypotheses about the function of each behavior
Hypothesis Behavior Plan • Examine antecedents. Develop a strategy to eliminate each trigger • Is there something the student desires and needs more frequent access to • Teach new behaviors that can achieve the same function and replace problem behaviors; how will new behaviors be reinforced? • Provide alternative sensory stimuli in cases of self-injury or self-stimulation • Examine current consequences to see if they are maintaining the problem behavior
To be good is noble, but to teach others how to be good is nobler and less trouble. -Mark Twain Karyn_Renneberg@hcpss.org