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The Persuasive Essay

The Persuasive Essay

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The Persuasive Essay

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  1. The Persuasive Essay

  2. What is a Persuasive Essay?

  3. In an episode of “Everybody Loves Raymond,” Marie writes a persuasive letter to the FBI interviewer whom is interviewing Robert (her son)… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cThuaPUD_Q&feature=PlayList&p=16B069ABF7F24A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 What is the issue that Marie is arguing to the FBI boss? What reasons/examples does she use in her letter to persuade the boss?

  4. How to Begin:

  5. FIRST ASK YOURSELF: • How will this situation/controversyaffect me? • How will it affect my family? • How will it affect my school/peers? • How will it affect my community? • How will it affect our society? • How will it affect us physically, emotionally, financially, and socially?

  6. Persuasive Essay: Ways to Brainstorm

  7. T-Chart • Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? SUPPORT AGAINST • Phillies • Blackberry • Giants • Yankees • iPhone • Jets

  8. FOUR- SQUARE BRAINSTORMING METHOD:

  9. PERSUASIVE ESSAYNext Step • After Brainstorming it is important we clearly identify and understand who our audience is for this particular topic.

  10. What am I doing? Identify in the “WRITING TASK” If you’re writing a letter and to whom. • “Write a letter to the newspaper” = Dear Editor, • “Write a letter to board members” = Dear Board of Education Members, • “Write a letter to your principal” = Dear Principal, • “Write a letter to the mayor” = Dear Mayor, • “Write an essay” = You do not need an opening salutation

  11. REMEMBER: You must connect your HOOK to the writing situation. They can’t remain separate. There must be a sentence linking the two thoughts together. INTRODUCTION Hook Startling Statistic/Fact Interesting Quote Strong/Interesting statement Example (explain in detail) or “Imagine If….” Relate to everyday life A thought provoking or rhetorical question Anecdote (very brief, sometimes funny story relating to your topic.) State the Situation What is the problem/situation? (You can pull from the prompt) State your opinion with your 3 reasons = THESIS STATEMENT

  12. Common Transition words or phrases: • Therefore • Furthermore • Also • In addition • On the other hand (to show the opposite side) • For example • Moreover • As a result • Finally • Similarly • Likewise SEE ATTACHED SHEET FOR MORE TRANSITION WORDS/PHRASES

  13. Sample Hook TOPIC: Should students be forced to wear uniforms? • Example: • Imagine opening your closet to find something to wear to school, and all you can find are khaki pants and white shirts. Does that sound like a nightmare? Well, for many public school students in America, it is a reality!

  14. Some Ways NOT to Begin • I am going to tell you about… • Once upon a time… • This is an essay about… • The assignment says I have to write about… • FIRE! Now that I have your attention… (Attention-getter has to relate to thesis.) • My first main idea is…

  15. TRANSITION WORDS

  16. TRANSITION WORDS

  17. Concluding Transitions • Clearly • Hence • Evidently • Ergo(a continuing thought) • Thus • Therefore • As one can see CHEETTA

  18. NO SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS! • “YOU” “YOUR “YOURS” SHOULD NOT BE USED IN FORMAL WRITING! • “You” is sometimes acceptable in the introduction paragraph for your HOOK only, but nowhere else. It is considered informal. We should NOT write how we speak, put your tuxedo and best dress on when you write! • Use “we, us, our, ours” or “one” or “students”

  19. First Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: State one reason why you agree or disagree can appeal to the audience’s logic, emotions, or morals Explain 3 supporting details to support/prove your reason: Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

  20. Types of Arguments • Logos (logic) means an argument based on reason. • Pathos (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept one’s viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. • Ethos (ethics or morals)is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Aristotle called it the “moral rightness” of an argument.

  21. Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece.

  22. Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greeek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.

  23. In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, “The Art of Rhetoric.” In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos and logos. Ethos, Logos and Pathos

  24. Ethos = a MORAL argument • The word "ethos" came from the Greek word “ethikos” meaning moral or showing moral character.  • An “ethos” argument demonstrates a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. For example: If your friend did something to offend you (hurt you) your mother or father may argue that forgiveness is the right or moral path to choose and that holding a grudge or showing resentment will get you nowhere.

  25. Pathos = an EMOTIONAL argument • An effective use of “pathos” will alter the mindsets of the audience through the use of emotional appeal. • Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world. • Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy.

  26. LogosLogos means logic • Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect OR, our brains. • Logos appeals to the left side of the audience's brain.  The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision.  • Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic. 

  27. Logos (logic) • Support your reasons with proof. • Facts - can be proven. • Expert opinions or quotations • Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase • Statistics– number facts; offer scientific support • Examples - powerful illustrations • Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal experiences • Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to prove the opposition (the other side) wrong

  28. REVIEWEthos, Pathos and Logos 1. ETHOS= an ethical or moral argument 2. PATHOS= an emotional argument 3. LOGOS= a logical argument

  29. Logos(logic) means an argument based on reason. • Examples: • “OnStar service inside your car is better than carrying a cell phone because a cell phone can’t call for you when you’re injured.” • “There was no discernible difference in the ACT scores of graduating seniors who wore school uniforms and those who didn’t.” • “Stand firm, parents. If you say ‘no’ at first and then give in later, you are only teaching your children to beg, whine and pester you.”

  30. Pathos (passion or emotions)is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept one’s viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. • Examples: • A politician says that we have to fight the war “over” there so that we don’t have to fight it here at home. • A newspaper editorial for private-school vouchers states that our public schools are “dens of thieves and thugs”. • If you loved me you would do this. • Persuading lower gas prices might want some anger in the current prices or the frustration in nothing being done about

  31. Ethos (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the reader’s morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. • Examples: • “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” — John Fitzgerald Kennedy • “The way ahead is not easy. We shall need all the wisdom, imagination, and courage we can muster. We must and shall guarantee the civil rights of all our citizens.” – Harry Truman addressing the NAACP

  32. Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?Identify what type of argument matches each statement. Write your answer beneath the quote. • “We are the only company who will roll over and save your unused phone minutes each month.” • LOGOS!! • “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” – Martin Luther King Jr. • ETHOS!! • A high school runs an article about drinking and driving with detailed descriptions and graphic pictures of automobile crashes. • PATHOS!!

  33. How to Build Strong Body Paragraphs

  34. Real-Life Examples & Allusions in Body Paragraphs • It is also important that we try to include “real-life” examples in our body paragraphs. Including real-life examples will enhance your writing. • SAMPLE: • Topic: Athlete's are overpaid. • Real life example in body paragraph: • I remember my thirteenth birthday party like it was yesterday. It was a wonderful day until my father informed me that he could not afford to purchase the tickets to the Giant’s game I wanted so badly to attend. At first I became angry, but then I realized that the tickets were over $200 each for average seats. I then realized I could enjoy the game more with my family at home and big bowl of popcorn.

  35. Real-Life Examples & Allusions in Body Paragraphs • Allusion – Reference to something outside the text. • Including allusions in our writing can also enhance our essays. • Historical figures • A time period in history • Current event in the media • Literary character • Movie • Book • Poem • Song • Quote by another author

  36. Second Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: State one reason why you agree or disagree can appeal to the audience’s logic, emotions, or morals Explain 3 supporting details to support/prove your reason: Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

  37. What does it mean to “negate/acknowledge the opposition”? _______________________________________________________________________________________ Third Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: State one reason why you agree or disagree can appeal to the audience’s logic, emotions, or morals Explain 3 supporting details to support/prove your reason: Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail This is where you can acknowledge the opposition. Prove the other side is wrong. Choose one argument from the other side and prove it is wrong. Include specific, real-life examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

  38. Get to Know Your Enemy! Explain and refute the opposite view within your essay. To “negate or acknowledge the opposition” means to prove the other side is wrong and give a stronger reason of your own. How would you refute or negate the two newscasters’ opinion that cell phones shouldn’t be permitted in schools? These newscasters argue that cell phones SHOULDN’T be allowed in schools. One newscaster tries to refute or negate their argument, but she doesn’t do a great job. What other argument could you use to “negate the opposition” (prove the other side wrong). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTKZ6jovfso

  39. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Transition Phrase: “As one can see…..” 1. Restate your opinion and three reasons. • State a possible alternative • {another option that you can present to the reader}. (Not in every essay) • Example: If you are against having cell phones in the classroom, as an alternative you could tell the reader that PERHAPS students could bring the cell phones to school and leave them in their locker for emergency purposes only. 2. Include a sentence or a question to bring closure. • Thought-provoking statement or question

  40. Final Thoughts… Wrap up your final thoughts, and restate your opinions in the last paragraph on the essay.

  41. Reasons to Know How to Write a Persuasive Essay… • Emphasizes critical thinking and analysis skills • Relativity: Writing to a newspaper on a local/national issue that concerns you • Or to sway a institution/company’s decision • Provides practice for college admissions/cover letter writing • Required to demonstrate this skill on the Standardized Testing

  42. Persuasive Techniques are Everywhere! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaGJNxCxB-s&feature=related

  43. Bringing Life to Persuasive Writing Who CARES? That’s SO TRUE!

  44. Having a Strong VOICE in your Writing • You feel a strong connection to the writer’s… • Emotion • Energy • Conviction • Integrity • …you feel SOMETHING!

  45. Voice is… • Person behind the words • Reader Writer • Involvement • Awareness of audience • Individualistic • Expressive

  46. Who’s Voice is This? 8:00 am – Dog food! My favorite thing! 9:30 am – A car ride! My favorite thing! 9:40 am – A walk in the park! My favorite thing! 10:30 am – Got rubbed and petted! My favorite thing! 12:00 pm – Lunch! My favorite thing! 1:00 pm – Played in the yard! My favorite thing! 3:00 pm – Wagged my tail! My favorite thing! 5:00 pm – Milk bones! My favorite thing! 7:00 pm – Got to play ball! My favorite thing! 8:00 pm – Wow! Watched TV with the people! My favorite thing! 11:00 pm – Sleeping on the bed! My favorite thing!

  47. Who’s Voice is This? Day 983 of my captivity. My captors continue to taunt me with bizarre little dangling objects. They dine lavishly on fresh meat, while the other inmates and I are fed hash or some sort of dry nuggets. Although I make my contempt for the rations perfectly clear, I nevertheless must eat something in order to keep up my strength. The only thing that keeps me going is my dream of escape. In an attempt to disgust them I once again vomit on the carpet. Today I decapitated a mouse and dropped its headless body at their feet. I had hoped this would strike fear into their hearts, since it clearly demonstrates what I am capable of. However, they merely made condescending comments about what a ‘good little hunter’ I am. There was some sort of assembly of their accomplices tonight.

  48. Who’s Voice is This? I was placed in solitary confinement for the duration of the event. However, I could hear the noises and smell the food. I overheard that my confinement was due to the power of ‘allergies.’ I must learn what this means and how to use it to my advantage… Today I was almost successful in an attempt to assassinate one of my tormentors by weaving around his feet as he was walking. I must try this again tomorrow – but at the top of the stairs. I am convinced that the other prisoners here are flunkies and snitches. The dog receives special privileges. He is regularly released – and seems to be more than willing to return. He is obviously an idiot. The bird has got to be an informant. I observe him communicating with the guards regularly. I am certain that he reports my every move. My captors have arranged protective custody for him in an elevated cell, so he is safe. For now…

  49. SAMPLE ESSAYS • Be certain to: • Read each paragraph carefully more than once to see what makes this sample essay a good one. • Review actual graded NJ ASK persuasive essays on the class website. • Note the scores and understand WHY they received them. • Note the strengths AND the weaknesses!!

  50. School Year-Round: 45 days on and 15 days off, or 10 months on and 2 months offStudent Example – INTRODUCTION paragraph The final bell rings. It’s the last day of school, and summer has finally come! Students don’t have to think about school for at least another 2 1/2 months. That is the way it should always be. Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year-round schedule(position). There are numerous downsides to year-round schooling. It has no positive effects on education (1), it adds to costs (2), and it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation (3). Student’s Opinion Student’s 3 reasons OPINION + 3 REASONS = THESIS STATEMENT