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Stellar Evolution

Stellar Evolution

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Stellar Evolution

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  1. Central Questions Key Vocabulary Resources Stellar Evolution Physics for 11th grade By James Johnson Teacher Page Assessment Comprehension Strategies EXIT

  2. Central Questions • Describe the life cycle of a star, from birth on through death. • How do planetary systems form and how is it related to stellar birth? • What internal processes keep stars alive? Back to Map

  3. Resources Non-Fiction Books Fiction Books Textbook Magazine and Journal Articles Websites and Webquests Video and Media Back to Map

  4. Non-Fiction Books • Taschek, K. (2006). Death Stars, Weird Galaxies, and a Quasar-Spangled Universe: the Discoveries of the Very Large Array Telescope. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. • Clark, S. (2005). Journey to the Stars. Oxford University Press. Back to Resources

  5. Fiction Books • Reisman, M. (2008). Simon Bloom: The Gravity Keeper. New York: Penguin Group. Back to Resources

  6. Textbook • Chapter 26: Exploring the Universe. In Wysession, M., Frank, D., & Yancopoulos, S. (2004). Physical Science: Concepts in Action. (pp. 827-855). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Back to Resources

  7. Magazine and Journal Articles • Naeye, R. (2008, November). Red Giant Shock Breakout. Sky & Telescope, 116(5), 30-30. • Schröder, K., & Connon Smith, R. (2008, May). Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386(1), 155-163. • Shepherd, D. (2007, June). STELLAR ORIGINS: From the Cold Depths of Space. (Cover story). Sky & Telescope, 113(6), 26-30. • Yeager, A. (2008, October 11). Dead--but not duds. Science News, 174(8), 26-28. Back to Resources

  8. Websites and Webquests • http://www.astro.uva.nl/demo/sun/kaft.htm • http://www.espace.gc.ca/eng/educators/resources/astronomy/module2/content.asp • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/universe/supernova.html • http://www.astronomy.org/astronomy-survival/solform.html • http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081002172445.htm • http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/Stars/hrdiagram.html • http://physics.gmu.edu/~jevans/astr103/CourseNotes/ECText/ch17_txt.htm#17.4.1 • Webquest: http://www.can-do.com/uci/ssi2003/starlife.html • For annotations, click here. Back to Resources

  9. Video and Media • http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/astro101/java/evolve/evolve.htm • Nova: Death of a Star, WGBH-TV.(2006). Back to Resources

  10. White dwarf- low mass star that has stopped thermonuclear reactions and has shrunk to the size of the Earth. Red giant- large, cool star of high luminosity. Supernova(e)-stellar outburst during which a star increases its brightness roughly a millionfold. Planetary nebula- luminous shell of gas ejected from an old, low-mass star. Nuclear fusion- the combining of nuclei under high temperatures in a process that releases energy. H-R diagram- plot of luminosity of stars against their surface temperature. Radiation pressure- pressure exerted by radiation due to nuclear fussion. Main sequence- grouping of stars on the H-R diagram extending diagonally across the graph from hot, luminous to cool, dim stars. Luminosity- rate at which light is emitted from a star. Black hole- object whose gravity is so strong that the escape speed exceeds the speed of light. Protostar- star in earliest stage of formation. Accretion disk- disk of gas orbiting a star or black hole. Key Vocabulary Back to Map

  11. Comprehension Strategies Connecting to Background Knowledge Questioning Making Inferences and Predicting Organizing/Summarizing Vocabulary Monitoring Comprehension Back to Map

  12. Questioning Long Strategy: Question Starters Short Strategy: Strategy: Questioning the author Comprehension Area: Questioning Literature Source:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081002172445.htm Objective: This strategy is used in order to develop students’ critical thinking of the texts that they read. By questioning the author about the content, possible bias, etc, students can gain a deeper understanding of the topic being discussed. Overview: After having modeled the behavior using a think aloud with a similar article, students will read the article and write down any questions that they may have for the author about the message and intent. After they read students will come up with answers to their question. Finally, the class will discuss their questions and the answers that they came up with in order to get a fuller understanding of the content of the article. Back to Strategies

  13. Connecting to Background Knowledge Long Strategy: Connection Cue Cards Short Strategy: Strategy: PReP Reading Plan Comprehension Area: Connecting to background knowledge Literature Source:Death stars, weird galaxies, and a quasar-spangled universe: the discoveries of the Very Large Array telescope. Taschek, Karen (2006) Objective: Students will access their prior knowledge about the life of stars before reading the book. This will encourage greater comprehension. Overview: Students will share their ideas about how stars die and the consequences there of. This will be accomplished by the teacher asking questions about the death of stars, supernovae, and black holes in general. Students will then compare their own ideas to those of the rest of the class and form predictions about what they will be reading. This also allows the teacher to identify the students’ level of understanding. Back to Strategies

  14. Making Inferences and Predicting Long Strategy: Cause and Effect Timeline Short Strategy: Strategy: Cloze Connections Comprehension Area: Making Inferences and/or Predicting Literature Source:Journey to the Stars by Stuart Clark (2005), pp. 55-60. Objective: Students will use their previous knowledge to make inferences in a text with phrases missing. They will also learn habits for figuring out vocabulary in context. Overview: Before class, the teacher finds important words and phrases in the text and removes them. In the place of the words, lines will be there for the students to fill in. Some of the sections are simply a single word, while others are longer phrases. These longer sentences are inferences that the students will have to make. When the students make their inferences, have them underline words and phrases that they used to make those inferences. Have the class share their inferences and the evidence that they used. Back to Strategies

  15. Organizing/Summarizing Long Strategy: Three-Column Notes Short Strategy: Strategy: Outline-ish Thoughts Comprehension Area: Organizing/Summarizing Literature Source: Naeye, R. (2008, November). Red Giant Shock Breakout. Sky & Telescope, 116(5), 30-30. Objective: Students will practice developing outlines in order to organize information gathered from reading the article on red giants. Overview: After the students have read the article, the class will create an outline for the reading. This will be achieved by providing the class with a partially completed graphic organizer containing headings and subheadings relevant to the article. This organizer will be completed by the students in small groups. Back to Strategies

  16. Vocabulary Long Strategy: Vocab Journal Short Strategy: Strategy: Quick Draw Comprehension Area: Vocabulary Literature Source: Physical Science: Concepts in Action. Wysession, Frank, Yancopoulos. (2004) pp. 846-855. Objective: Students will find new vocabulary and its meaning, and then show their understanding of the new words by creating a graphic and having the rest of the class guess which of the new words the picture represents. Overview: This is similar to the game Pictionary. After reading the text and identifying new vocabulary words, the students will compile a class list and discuss possible meanings for the words. Using teams, students will draw the new words and their team must try to guess the word. This will demonstrate the students’ understanding of the new vocabulary. Back to Strategies

  17. Monitoring Comprehension Short Strategy: Strategy: RATA Comprehension Area: Monitoring Comprehension Literature Source: Schröder, K., & Connon Smith, R. (2008, May). Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386(1), 155-163. Objective: This strategy is basically a think-aloud. As I read the article aloud, I will make sure to stop and ask questions at points that may be difficult or present a new vocabulary word. Short summaries and interjections of thoughts could also be utilized. Overview: This strategy models what students should do when being actively engaged with the material they are reading. It helps students connect to background knowledge and to think about what they are reading. It also helps show students that it is okay to stop and ask a question in the middle of a text. All of the above help to develop a deeper understanding of the content. Back to Strategies Monitoring Comprehension II

  18. Monitoring Comprehension II Short Strategy: Strategy: Read Aloud Everything Comprehension Area: Monitoring Comprehension Literature Source: http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/Stars/hrdiagram.html Objective: Students will concentrate more on the reading since they will be more actively involved while reading. This will lead to deeper understanding of the content. Overview: This strategy is quite easy to do; students simply read everything aloud. This requires greater focus on the material thus leading to more undrestanding. A follow up discussion will verify that students have comprehened the material. Back to Strategies Monitoring Comprehension

  19. Assessment During Unit After Unit • Writing to Learn with a novel. Follow the directions given in this Podcast. • After the unit students will be given a timeline sheet similar to the one used in the Cause and Effect timeline strategy. They will fill out three more timelines for stars of different masses indicating the various stages of stellar evolution. • Students wil be graded on the completeness of their Vocab Journals begun in the strategy listed previously and continued throughout the unit. • Students will keep a blog as a star of a given mass. As each step of stellar evolution is discussed, they will post about how that stage of evolution is manifested in their star. • Students’ learning of vocabulary will be assessed using the Quick Draw strategy described in the strategy section. • Students will be assessed following the Connection Cue Cards lesson. They will be assessed based upon completion of their cards as well as thoroughness. Back to Map

  20. Teacher Page Science Standards C.12.7 : Evaluate articles and reports in the popular press, in scientific journals, on television, and on the Internet, using criteria related to accuracy, degree of error, sampling, treatment of data, and other standards of experimental design. E.12.3 : Using the science themes, describe theories of the origins and evolution of the universe and solar system, including the earth system as a part of the solar system and relate these theories and their implications to the geologic time on earth. Reading Standard • A.12.1: Use effective reading strategies to achieve their purposes in reading. • Apply sophisticated word meaning and word analysis strategies to understand unfamiliar words. • Gather information to help achieve understanding when the meaning of a text is unclear. • Explain and evaluate the influence of format on the readability and meaning of a text. Back to Map