Disorders of Memory • H.M. • Anterograde Amnesia • Retrograde Amnesia • Korsakoff’s Syndrome Animal Models of Memory Lecture Outline
Temporal lobes • hippocampus and amygdala. • processing of short-term to long-term memory. • Diencephalon • thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies. • processing of short-term to long-term memory. Anatomy of Memory • Prefrontal lobes • important for short-term memory.
Retrograde – loss of memory for events prior to injury. • Anterograde – inability to form new memories. • Post-traumatic Amnesia (PTA) – period of time after brain injury during which new memories can not be formed (patient is also usually disoriented in time and space). Disorders of Memory
Patient H.M. suffered from epilepsy thought to be caused by a head injury at age 9. • H.M.’sepilepsycould not be controlled through drug interventions. • H.M. underwentbilateral temporal lobotomiesin 1958. Who is H.M.? coronal MR slices H.M. Healthy control
Surgery successfully treated epileptic seizures, but left severe memory impairments. • His memory for the remote past was intact (could remember his childhood), but he had someretrograde amnesiaand severeanterograde amnesia. • If you left H.M. for only a few minutes, upon returning he would most likely forget who you were or that you had already met! • Loss of episodic memory. Semantic memory generally intact. • Semantic – memory for factual based material. • Episodic – memory for events that can be linked to a time and place. Who is H.M.?
“Right now, I’m wondering, ‘Have I done or said anything amiss?’ You see, at this moment everything looks clear to me, but what happened just before? That’s what worries me. It’s like waking from a dream.” -- H.M., 1965 • “Every day is alone in itself, whatever enjoyment I’ve had, and whatever sorrow I’ve had.” -- H.M., 1968 What is it like to be H.M.?
Classic cases of amnesia The case of N.A. • A small lesion in the left dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. • Similar pattern of deficits to H.M. • Retrograde amnesia for the 2 years preceding the accident. • Almost complete anterograde amnesia – can remember virtually nothing of events since the accident. • More verbal than visual memory deficits, although both domains affected (e.g., has spatial memory impairments). • Episodic lost but semantic intact. What Is Memory?
Classic cases of amnesia What types of functions may be left intact in cases of severe amnesia, such as H.M., Clive and N.A.? • immediate memory – can recite back several words immediately (but within five minutes no recollection of words). • intact memory for remote events (e.g., from childhood). • factual knowledge (e.g. water boils at 100°C). • perceptual and motor memory (e.g. riding a bike, brushing teeth). • language and social skills. • procedural learning (e.g. mirror drawing). • Other facets of functioning: • Personality • Intellectual Functioning Insight into intact and impaired functions in amnesics enables us to learn much about memory processing. What Is Memory?
Task – draw object viewed in the mirror. • Practice makes perfect – even in H.M. • Never recalls having done the test! • Implicit memory. • stem-completion also intact – e.g., DEFEND, HELIUM, MODIFY DEF__________ DEFEND, DEFEAT, DEFINE H.M. – procedural learning.
The hippocampus is NOT the location of LTM, and is NOT necessary formation of LTM. • can remember childhood. The hippocampus is NOT the location of STM. • can carry on conversations. The hippocampus IS responsible for converting STM into LTM. • understands new information, but a permanent record is never made. • involved in consolidating memories overtime. H.M.’s Contribution to Memory Research
Performance Retrieval Incoming information Working memory Long-term storage Sight Sound Short-term storage Sensory buffers Encoding Consolidation Smell Touch Hypothesized Memory Processes Attention Rehearsal
What brain regions are critical in anterograde amnesia? • for H.M. the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex were removed (as was the amygdala). Parahippocampal cortex: A region of limbic cortex adjacent to the hippocampal formation that, along with the perirhinal cortex, relays information between the entorhinal cortex and other regions of the brain. • amygdala is probably only important for the emotional content of memories – flashbulb memories. • amnesic patients can perform memory tasks, but they cannot learn anything they learned from it. Anterograde Amnesia
Proof the hippocampus mediates consolidation? Patient S.M.- bilateral amygdaladamage. • could not establish conditioned emotional responses. Patient W.C.- bilateral hippocampaldamage. • could not remember testing procedure. • episodic (declarative) memory impaired. Patient R.H.- bilateral damage to both. • both kinds of learning impaired. Double Dissociation
severe anterograde amnesia. • destruction of parts of diencephalon (mammilo-thalamic tract). • temporally graded retrograde amnesia. • lose declarative memories but not procedural ones. • confabulation is common. • caused by thiamine deficiency due to alcoholism and poor diet. Korsakoff’s amnesia
MTL amnesics % correct Korsakoff’s patients 1990 1980 1960 1950 1940 1970 Korsakoff’s patients show a steep temporal gradient in their remote memories Retrograde amnesia and the temporal gradient
Retrograde amnesia and consolidation • temporal gradient to retrograde amnesia. • for closed head injury or even ECT (shock therapy) – memory loss is greatest for most recent events and rarely extends beyond a few years. • retrograde amnesia is quite severe in Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome but still maintains a temporal gradient – suggests hippocampus is not the only structure necessary for memory.
more than just “filling-in-the-blanks”. • patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff’s will make up information to hide a memory deficit. • indicative of a lack of awareness of the memory impairment (frontal lobe involvements). Confabulation
Memory involves multiple brain regions • medial temporal lobes • hippocampus • entorhinal cortex • parahippocampal cortex • amygdala • subcortical structures • mammilo-thalamic tract • neocortex • posterior superior temporal gyrus • dorsolateral prefrontal cortex The story so far…
We have learned a lot about memory from case studies, but individual cases are not as statistically powerful as group studies. • We know that different brain structures have different roles in learning and memory. • Human memory research provides researchdirection, but animal research is needed forin depth analysis. Animal Models of Memory Research
Delayed match to sample Delayed non-match to sample Animal models of memory
hippocampal lesions disrupt learning in a radial arm maze or Morris water maze. Spatial memory – animal models Now have Virtual Reality Morris water mazes for humans
output from BG – thalamus, from there to prefrontal and SMA • premotor, SMA involved in planning & execution • important for learning sequences of movements Prefrontal cortex
MacDonald & White used the radial arm maze (RAM) to examine declarative, procedural and emotional memory. • Evidence for different memory systems mediated by different brain structures. • Lesions to the hippocampus produced deficits in declarative memory. • Lesions to the basal ganglia produced deficits in procedural memory. • Lesions to the amygdala produced deficits in emotional memory. Triple Dissociation
Review Questions 1) People with anterograde amnesia A) are unable to recall childhood experiences. B) show impairments in motor memory. C) show normal complex relational learning. D) are unable to learn new information. E) show facilitated stimulus-response learning. 2) The most profound symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome is A) anterograde amnesia. B) total amnesia. C) combative behavior D) delirium tremens. E) auditory and visual hallucinations. 3 ) Which of the following is true of confabulation? A) Confabulation is seen in persons who simply mix up their memories. B) Confabulation is intentional. C) Patient H.M. shows severe confabulation. D) Korsakoff's patients fail to show confabulation. E) Confabulation is the report of a fictitious event by a person with amnesia.
Review Questions 4) One striking aspect of H.M.'s memory deficit is that he A) can learn some new tasks, but is unaware of having learned them. B) only remembers recent facts. C) reverses word order in repeated sentences. D) indicates he remembers things he has never seen. E) show signs of confabulation. 5) Which of the following is true of short-term memory? A) Immediate memory precedes short-term memory. B) Short-term memory has a limited capacity. C) Short-term memory is impaired by repetition of verbal material. D) Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity. E) Immediate memory is distinct from short-term memory. 6) When tested in an 8-arm maze, a rat with hippocampal damage will A) repeatedly visit arms from which they have already eaten a food pellet. B) be unable to visit all of the arms. C) be more efficient at getting food than is an intact rat. D) only visit arms that have never held food in the past. E) perform more efficiently than will a rat with damage to the fornix or entorhinal cortex.