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DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA PowerPoint Presentation
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DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA

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DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA

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DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA

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  1. DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA (African rock crawlers)

  2. Aquatic nymphs Ovipositor lost Plecoptera Terrestrial nymphs Silk glands Embiodea(=Embioptera) No silk glands Zoraptera Dermaptera prognathous head Cerci modified to forceps Cerci not modified Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea ? Saltatorial hind legs Orthoptera Hind legs not saltatorial Phasmatodea

  3. Hexapod Orders Dermaptera Derma - skin, ptera - wing Number of Species >1900 Common names earwigs Typical habitats - fossorial - damp, dark Distinguishing characteristics - cerci - large forceps Other features - females show parental care

  4. Myths about earwigs

  5. Earwig Food

  6. Dermaptera - Cerci

  7. Dermaptera – Life cycle Female lays eggs in top few cm of soil Hatch in 1 week Female tends eggs & nymphs for 2 weeks Overwinter in soil Mate Mate and complete 1 more cycle

  8. Effect of maternal care Suzuki, J.Ins.Sci. 10:2-8

  9. Suzuki, J.Ins.Sci. 10:2-8

  10. Female preference in offspring feeding - high quality food - dyed green - Low quality food - no dye Mas et al, Proc. R. Soc. B 276 2847-2853

  11. Matricide 86.7% Kohno, Res. Pop. Ecol. 39:11-16

  12. Giant earwig – St. Helena

  13. Hexapod Orders Grylloblattodea Gryllo - cricket, blatto - roach Number of Species 25 Common names Iceworms, rock crawlers Typical habitats - near melting snow, litter in alpine forests Distinguishing characteristics -multi-segmented cerci -wingless Other features -live in cold habitats -restricted to Northern Hemisphere -omnivorous

  14. Grylloblattid - Habitat

  15. Grylloblattid – Life cycle Female lays eggs in soil or moss Hatch in 1 month to 3 years Nymphs – 8 instars (about 7 years) Mate Females sexually mature after 1 year

  16. Grylloblattid Distribution

  17. Hexapod Orders Mantophasmatodea Manto - mantid, phasmato - stick insect Number of Species 8 Common names African rock crawlers, gladiators, heelwalkers Typical habitats -xeric, rocky habitat Distinguishing characteristics -wingless -enlarged arolium Other features -closest relative - Grylloblattodea -carnivores

  18. Discovered in amber

  19. Mantophasmatodea - Predatory adaptations Large eyes Spines on forelegs

  20. Mantophasmatodea - Life cycle Eggs hatch - juveniles develop in winter (wet) months Autumn rains (May) Mating Eggs laid in egg pod -resists desiccation

  21. Mantophasmatodea - Relationship to other orthopteroid orders Predatory adaptations (mantids) Egg cases (roaches, mantids) Wingless (grylloblattids) Prolonged mating (phasmids) Male eaten after mating (mantids) Substrate communication (stoneflies) Male much smaller than female (mantids)

  22. Mantophasmatodea - Distribution • • • • • • • • • • • •

  23. Mantophasmatodea - Distribution Grylloblattids Mantophasmatodea

  24. Aquatic nymphs Ovipositor lost Plecoptera Terrestrial nymphs Silk glands Embiodea(=Embioptera) No silk glands Zoraptera Dermaptera prognathous head Cerci modified to forceps Cerci not modified Grylloblattodea Notoptera = Grylloblattodea + Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea ? Saltatorial hind legs Orthoptera Hind legs not saltatorial Phasmatodea