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Broken Windows or Broken Logic?

Broken Windows or Broken Logic?

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Broken Windows or Broken Logic?

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  1. Broken Windows orBroken Logic? Supervising Offenders in the Community

  2. Broken Windows Probation • 3 Million In Our Midst • “Hundreds and thousands of violent crimes are committed each year by people on probation” • The public wants to reduce violent crime now • 2/3 of probationers commit another crime within three years of their sentence • In 1991 (nationally), 6,400 murders, 7,400 rapes, 11,400 assaults, 17,000 robberies • Conditions not “rigorously enforced” • Absconders run amok

  3. Why is Probation “Broke(N)?” • Funding Levels • 2/3 of the people, 1/3 of the corrections dollar • $20-50K per year for prison, $200 for probation • Caseloads of 100-500 offenders • Bad Practices • Drug testing that is scheduled in advance • Supervision in Office (doesn’t manage risk) • Average of one contact per month

  4. The Solution:Placing Public Safety First • Supervise in neighborhood, not office • More “surveillance,” ability to monitor and control • “Meaningful” supervision occurs at all hours • Rationally allocate Resources • Better risk and need assessment • Supervision based on Geography • Enforce violations quickly/strongly • “Deterrent Effect,” Track down absconders

  5. More Goals • Develop partners in the Community • Work with police, victims, schools, neighborhood groups, inform public… • PO’s act like “C.O.P.s” (attend “neighborhood meetings, adopt “placed-based” supervision • Establish “Performance Based Initiatives” • Good research with clearly measured outcomes

  6. Structural Issues in Re-thinking • Case Assignments, Job Responsibilities • Job Description and Training • Caseload, Resource, Technical Support • Community Involvement and Support

  7. Fixing “Broken Windows” • General Criticisms: • Ignores single most consistent finding in probation literature: treatment works, surveillance and control does not • “Community Supervision” • Publicity stunt to get funding • Is this based on any evidence? • Short-term thinking

  8. Improve Public Safety • P.O.s should be asked to do LESS, not more • Cannot be held responsible for community safety—focus on offender • Develop sanctioning strategies that do not result in a significant # of offenders in jail • Treatment is the only known way to improve safety

  9. Supervise in Community? • Location, location, location only for houses • Any evidence this will work? (not really) • How monitor P.O.s? • “Supervision” becomes main role of P.O. • “Monitor and Control” emphasis • Union/staff resistance to hours/job

  10. Rationally Allocate Resources • Council focuses on existing $ • Improve assessment? • Cost of this? • Treatment availability, cost, quality? • Shift (back) to “place-based” supervision • Generalist vs. Specialist • There are reasons for the “specialist”

  11. Strong Enforcement of Conditions • Past decade? Increase in number and type of conditions • Use better judgment with conditions • Develop system of graduated sanctions • Council still relies on incarceration as a “general deterrent” to others…support for this is weak • Probation Based “Absconder Units” • $ for this? What to do when we catch them? • Why do probationers abscond?

  12. Partners in the Community • Operation Night Light • Allows probation to appear more “police-like” • Appear “tougher” • IRONY can be pretty ironic sometimes • COP envisions police acting as “resource brokers” • Dumja Vu • Council claims that “ONL” reduced homicide • Exaggerated claims unsupported by sound research • Ends ($) justify the means (use crappy research as “evidence”

  13. Final Comments on BW’s • Council ignores the fact that over 70% of offenders placed on probation will complete their term without new arrest • More effective than: • JAIL • Prison • Intermediate Sanctions • Core technology of probation? Individual Offender Change

  14. Supervision Models • Casework Era • Brokerage Model • Justice Model • “Supervision and Control” • Integrated • Control and Treatment are not incompatible • Pg. 117 = Martinson Blasphemy

  15. Probation Officer Work Styles • The “Law Enforcer” • The “Time Server” • The “Therapeutic Agent” • The “Synthetic”

  16. Caseloads and Workloads • “Average Caseload” not that important • Most jurisdictions have different levels • Specialized Caseloads (sex offenders, drugs, etc.) • “Regular” • Parole = 67 • Probation = 124 • “Intensive” • Parole = 38 • Probation = 25 • Assigning Cases: “workload standard”