Chapter 8 – The Confederation Era Notes for 8.1
The Move West • The West composed of all land west of the Appalachian Mountains • After the Rev. War, the population in West grew from 2,000 to 100,000 people • According to the Articles of Confederation, states deemed this land as public, belonging to the central government
The West • So who protects this public land? • The government did not have money to send troops or purchase land from the Native Americans.
The West • To raise money, the central government sold large tracts of land to Land speculators (dealers) who would then sell them for profit • Westerners did not like these land speculators • Settlers in Tennessee and Kentucky threatened to leave the U.S. so Congress replied with two laws: • Land Ordinance of 1785 • Northwest Ordinance
Land Ordinance of 1785 • Land Ordinance of 1785- law that established a plan for dividing the federally owned lands west of Appalachian Mountains
Land Ordinance of 1785 • Land north of the Ohio River would be divided into townships 6 miles square • Each township would again be divided into 36 sections each 1 mile square • Money from the sales of this land had to go to establish a public school • To attract land speculators, land cost $1 per acre and one had to buy an entire section • 1 square mile = 640 acres • Land speculators could divide the land into smaller rectangular tracts to sell for profit
Northwest Ordinance • Northwest Ordinance- law that described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Land enclosed by the Ohio River, Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River were to be divided into 3 to 5 territories • Population = 5,000 male citizens, they could set up a territorial government with elected legislatures • Population = 60,000 can apply for statehood • Outlawed slavery north of the Ohio River
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • The Utmost Good Faith Clause • Utmost Good Faith Clause of the Northwest OrdinanceArticle III.�Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent; and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. • Continental Congress. "The Northwest Ordinance,"July 13,1787. http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/ordinanc.html.
Northwest Ordinance • Importance of Northwest Ordinance: • Set foundation in how to organize a state • Restricted slavery in that land • Made provisions for public education • Included “Utmost good faith” clause for dealing with the Native Americans in the Northwest Territory
Economic Problems and Shays’s Rebellion The government’s economic problems led to armed rebellion
The Confederation Era • The Rebellion caused the U.S. government to realize they needed more power to be effective.
Daily Assignment • Complete the vocabulary sheet • Answer questions 2-4 on page 225 • Title Chapter 8 sec.1
Creating the Constitution Chapter 8 Section 2
12 delegates from 5 states meet to create national trade laws @ Annapolis • Call for national meeting in Philadelphia • Afraid of rebellion, 12 states (except Rhode Island) send delegates (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia)
The Convention’s Delegates • 55 state delegates meet at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia • Delegates include George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and James Madison
James Madison • Noted as one of the ablest delegate • In preparation for the convention- read more than 100 books on democracy • Will be known as the Father of the Constitution
ABSENT TJ JA PH When Jefferson read the list of delegates, he wrote, “It is really an assembly of demigods.”
TheDelegatesAssemble • Delegates want to create government strong enough to maintain order • But also want government that protects people’s rights.
TheConventionBegins • George Washington elected president of the Constitutional Convention. • Delegates do not want decisions influenced by political pressures • To ensure this, they decide that discussions will remain secret
TheVirginiaPlan • The Virginia Plan divides government into 3 branches:-Legislature- makes the laws • Legislature has two housesRepresentation is based on each state’s population or wealth -Executive- enforces the laws -Judiciary- interprets the laws
Larger states support the plan, smaller states oppose • Smaller states are afraid larger states will control them
FOR UNDERSTANDING QUICK CHECK
The purpose of the Constitutional Convention was: • to divide up the lands west of • the Appalachian Mountains. • 2) to resolve problems with the • Articles of Confederation. • 3) to declare independence from Great Britain • 4) to set up a confederate governmental system.
The Constitutional Convention was held in: 1) 1785 2) 1787 3) 1789 4) 1791
1)Thomas Jefferson 2) John Adams 3)James Madison 4) Patrick Henry Who of the following was present at the Constitutional Convention?
3)James Madison 4) Benjamin Franklin 1) George Washington 2) Patrick Henry Who of the following was absent from the Constitutional Convention?
1)George Washington 2) Benjamin Franklin 3) James Madison 4) Edmond Randolph ______ served as the president of the convention.
1) Great Compromise 2) delegates from Philadelphia 3) Three-Fifths Compromise 4) Virginia Plan The ______, proposed a government with three branches.
1) an executive, a legislative, and a congressional. 2) an executive, a litigious, and a judiciary. 3)an elite, a legislative, and a judiciary. 4) an executive, a legislative, and a judiciary. The three branches proposed by the Virginia Plan were:
New Jersey Plan • New Jersey Plan is an alternative plan for U.S. government • legislature has one house • each state has one vote
The large states favored the Virginia Plan • The small states favored the New Jersey Plan • A committee was selected to find a compromise
Delegates pass the Great Compromise • Each state is given equal votes in the senate: this satisfies the small states • State’s population determines representation in House of Representatives: This satisfies the larger states
The Great Compromise • Delegates place few limits on Congress’s power to regulate commerce • Southerners succeed in banning Congress from taxing imports • Native Americans are not foreign nations or part of separate states
The Legislative branch would have two houses. Both houses in the Legislature would assign representatives by state population or wealth. The Legislature would have one House. Each state would have one vote in the Legislature. The Great Compromise • The Legislature would have two houses. • The Senate would give each state equal representation. • The House of Representatives would have representation according to state population.
Slavery And The Constitution • Southern states want slaves counted for representation, not for taxes • Northern states want slaves counted for taxes, not for representation • To solve the dispute, delegates agree to the Three-Fifths Compromise
3/5 of slave population counts for direct taxes • 3/5 of slave population counts for representation • Delegates agree that slave trade cannot be banned until 1808
The Delegates agree on the Constitution • On September 15, 1787 delegates approve the Constitution • Constitution sent to the states for ratification
FOR UNDERSTANDING QUICK CHECK
1) Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan 2) Madison Plan, Randolph Plan 3) Carolina Plan, New York Plan 4) Monroe Plan, Jefferson Plan The ______ proposed a legislature with two houses, the members of which were based on the population and wealth of each state. The ______ suggested a single house where each state had equal value.
1) Virginia Plan 2) Federalist Papers 3) Great Compromise 4) New Jersey Plan The ______ created a legislative branch with two houses, one based on the population of each state, and one that gave an equal voice to each state.
1)Three-Fifths Compromise 2) Missouri Compromise 3) Virginia Plan 4) Articles of Confederation For purposes of taxation and representation in the House of Representatives, the ______ counted slaves as partial citizens.
1) slaves 2) commerce 3) exports 4) incomes Congress was granted the power to regulate, promote and tax______, make treaties, and be the sole coiner of money.