The Thirteenth Amendment The abolishment of slavery in the United States. This was important because originally the emancipation proclamation only freed slaves in the confederate sates.
Quiz 1.What were the beliefs of the Radical Republicans? 2. What was the purpose of the thirteenth Amendment? 3. Why did the Freedman’s Bureau and the black codes come about and what was their purpose?
Split in the Republican party Lincoln’s Plan for reconstruction: Have the South take oaths of loyalty to re join the union. When ten percent had taken the oath they could rejoin Radical Republican’s Plan: favored the rights and protection of African Americans (including African American suffrage) Radicals refused Lincoln’s plan believing they could not trust repentant confederates.
Wartime reconstruction Lincoln battled with congress during the civil war to decide how to handle the South. Lincoln would develop the Ten Percent Plan: If ten percent of an occupied territory took an oath of allegiance they could begin to set-up a loyal government. The plan worked in some states but congress refused to seat elected members.
Radical Republican’s Vision of Reconstruction. • The Radical Republicans were lead by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. • Their view was not to reconcile with the south or as Steven’s put it “Revolutionize Southern institutions, habitats and manners.” • The Radical’s three goals were 1.Prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war. 2. The Republican party to become the powerful institution in the South. 3.They wanted the federal to help African Americans achieve Political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote.
Wade Davis Bill Many in congress believed that South had forfeited its right to be part of the union and congress would decide how they would come back in. Congress passes the Wade Davis Bill: Stated that if 50 percent of a state swore loyalty their state could be re admitted but only those 50 could vote. Lincoln vetoed this bill
End Result The debate clearly ends with Lincoln’s Assassination Though Historians believe Lincoln would have eventually compromised. What problems does the country face with Andrew Johnson as President?
Helping out Freed Men • Congress would pass a bill authorizing the Freedman’s Bureau. This group took a part of the military and used it to support newly freed slaves They provided labor contracts, some education, housing, and food.
The Johnson Presidency Johnson was from Tennessee and the only senator not to join his peers in succession. Johnson began to place states under provisional governors chosen by prominent southerners. These governors were in charge of putting together constitutional conventions These conventions were to do three things Make Succession illegal, Repudiate confederate debt, ratify the thirteenth amendment.
Tension forms between Johnson and Congress Johnson began to allow states to enter, pardoning many form southern leaders as they came humbled to him. The southern states began to restrict the suffrage rights of freed slaves. This worried Republicans
Black codes Congress did not agree with Johnson’s choice and was fearful of the provisional governors. These Fears were not helped by the passage of black codes. Black codes: Subjecting former slaves to a variety of regulations and restrictions on their freedom These acts mostly looked likely slavery by a different name.
More on black codes. Unemployment was viewed as a criminal action The south attempted to segregate African Americans from whites African Americans could not hold property.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • As a means to counter the black codes congress passed the Civil Rights act of 1866. • It granted citizenship to all person born in the U.S. except Native Americans It would not permit states to take rights from citizens.
Johnson Strikes back against Congress Congress and Johnson continued to battle back and forth on the issues. Johnson vetoed a number of reconstruction bills including funding for the Freedman’s Bureau. Johnson also vetoed the Civil rights act Congress was able to override Johnson’s veto. Congress also passed a bill to keep the Freedman's bureau funded.
Johnson makes things worse. With opposition from the Republican party Johnson planned to drop from the party The President planned to create the National Union Movement: Which existed to push Johnson’s reconstruction laws.
Johnson starts to loose power Johnson planned to oppose the Republican’s passage of the 14th amendment. Johnson miscalculated though as most of country was tired of seeing the violence against blacks. Lead to congress becoming more Republican and passage of the 14 Amendment.
Fourteenth Amendment This Amendment would give equal rights to under the law to all Americans It gave citizenship to all American born or naturalized within the U.S. The states could not deny these citizens life liberty or property. During the coming election Johnson would only weaken himself by opposing the Amendment
Radical Reconstruction Radical Reconstruction: Represented as the general compromises between the radical and moderate Republicans. Radicals such as Sumner and Stevens believed in period of regeneration in the south where military control was enforced to bring equality to African Americans. Result the first reconstruction bill.
Military reconstruction The first reconstruction bill did have the military in control. From 1867to 1868 The region was reorganized into five military districts. Ratifications of new constitutions were based on the idea that newly freed slaves could protect themselves in a vote.
The trouble with Johnson Johnson who was against this plan began to dismiss office holders, and began to replace radical generals. Congress would pass the tenure of office act: Required that the President receive approval of the senate to remove cabinet officials. Johnson will attempt to replace secretary of war Edmund M. Stanton.
The Tenure of Office act and Johnson’s impeachment • The Tenure of office act required the Senate to approve the removal of any government • Johnson would test this act by removing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton who supported programs put together by Republicans. • Within three days the house voted to impeach Johnson for refusing to uphold the Tenure of Office Act. • The Senate was eight votes shy of removing Johnson from office.
Republicans take control • With union troops supporting the freed slave populace Grant was able to win six southern states and most of the North. • Clearly giving republicans control in the country.
The changing South • As Republicans work to rebuild the South a number of different social orders prevail. First group consisted of Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Carpetbagger: Northern businessmen that moved to the south hoping to gain government aid to start businesses Scalawags: A mix of poor white farmers and former Whigs who saw this as their time to grow financially. The last group were newly enfranchised black who the party hoped to support.
Land ownership in the South The Freedman’s bureau attempted to get Freed men back to work through wage labor. Most African Americans wanted to stay working on the land they had due to it being part of the family dynamic.
40 acres and a mule. The freedmen’s bureau promised to help put land in the hands of Freedmen. They promised that every freedmen could work 40 acres for three years and at the end the freedmen could buy the land The laws for such a program were never passed quickly ending the policy.
Share cropping African Americans cotinued to try and farm their own land. They reached an agreement with for plantations owners to farm land for share of the crops. In time most African Americans fell into debt
The African American Community in the South • Churches became the center of African American communities. • Churches sponsored different community events: Festivals, Picnics , schools, and political events • Religion had always played a big role in the lives of African Americans, and once slavery had ended they began to build their own churches.
The rights of African Americans African Americans see rights increase drastically by defending them public meetings and convention halls. One of these rights is the ability to be married. Problems still prevailed though EG some African American children became apprentices to white southerners if their parents were unemployed
Southern Education • Reconstruction governments began to build comprehensive public school systems in the south. • By 1876 40% of African American children were enrolled in school • Eventually a number of academies were established that would become a network of African American Colleges.
Education Ex slaves quickly flocked to education especially for their children. Most schools were African American base and were precursors to segregated schools.
The Fifteenth Amendment 1869 Once the Republicans had retaken power by electing grant they would continue their reconstruction plans. Why would the Republican’s pass the Fifteenth Amendment? 1 They saw how the votes of former freed slaves could help the party. 2 They worried about the south taking rights away The amendment made it so you could not deny someone the right to vote based on race color or previous servitude.
Political Result By 1870 Politicians like Senator Blanche K. Bruce and Representative Hiram R. Revels become the first African Americans elected to the senate. Revels was elected to a seat in Mississippi that was once held by Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
Origins of the Ku Klux Klan • Though these changes were occurring in African American Society they would face intense discrimination • Southerners were angry at Northern Republicans but had no way to strike back at them. • The Klu Klux Klan started in Tennessee and was based around the goal of driving out carpet baggers and intimidating African Americans
Terror in the South As White southerners lost more rights they were looking for a way to strike back. Secret societies began to form including the Klu Klux Klan. The klan goal was to try and scare blacks from using their rights. It also targeted Republican governors to try and force out Northern influence. Grant made interference in elections and began to send U.S. marshals after Klan members.
Ku Klux Klan Act • The Klan grew throughout the south and began to drive out members of the Freedmen’s Bureau as well as terrorizing republican supporters • Grant was outraged by these actions and pushed congress to pass three different acts to stop the Klan • Under these acts U.S. Marshals started to bring clan members to justice but only a few were actually found guilty in the court of Law.
Grant Presidency As Grant took the Presidency many of original Republicans from reconstruction had died off. The party split by people loyal to Grant who were spoiled by the power of the President and people who deemed themselves to be real politicians.
Success of Grant Though Grant was able stop the Klu Klux Klan for awhile his overall success was limited. Grant viewed the role of the President as a man who only became involved to fix problems. Grant legitimacy was questioned due issues like the Whisky ring Scandal and Credit Mobile Scandal.
Panic of 1873 Aside from the Scandal a serious economic recession occurred during Grant’s administration. A series of bad Railroad investments forced a number of Railroad companies to go bankrupt. After which people began to fear investing their money into projects. Small banks collapsed, stocks fell, business closed, and unemployment was on the rise.
Election of 1877 The election that followed Grant’s presidency was full controversy The Democratic nominee Samuel Tilden essentially tied Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes. Due to the fact that Hayes one by only one electoral vote. (well within a margin of error)
Compromise of 1877 A committee of 15 was appointed by congress to solve the election issue. The compromise that lead to election of Hayes was incredibly controversial. Ther Republican party would remove union troops from the South in exchange for Hayes to become President. (Clearly this would effect the rights of African Americans)
New South As the south attempted to build the idea of “New South” was proposed by a news paper. The idea was that the South would rebuild with a strong industrial economy.
Debt Peonage The idea that African Americans could pay off their farming debt by working for white land owners until their debt was paid for. These contracts essentially made African Americans slaves again.
Last Breath of the Native Americans At the close of the Civil War Native American inhabited nearly half the U.S. 2/3 of these groups lived on the great plains. Many of which were nomadic and had some warlike tendencies Before the civil war this are was known as Indian country 1834 U.S. Government passes the Indian Intercourse act which prohibited whites from entering Indian country without license
Funny how things change By 1850 wagon trains moved through the are moving to Oregon. The government then set-up boundaries for each tribe. This lead to a number of small scale massacres between settlers and natives. The U.S. Government would begin seeking peace After sending commissioners the U.S. government decided to plant the Native Americans in two locations or reservations Near common day Oaklahoma
It all returns to nothing Many natives could not adjust to this living style with gold rush upon them, the Natives would enter into multiple squabbles. 1875 a Sioux gathering attempted to stop prospectors who infringed on their land. They were led by Rain in the face, and Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull.
Oh that Custer…. • The military send troops to take care of the Natives. One George Armstrong Custer is in control of the force Believing in himself in his intelligence he sends 250 men against 2,500 Natives Sparking a fury from the slaughter more troops would be sent in a few months the army 3,000 Sioux were defeated
1849 Gold is wild People were moving west for various reasons, some for adventure, others for opportunity. The Gold rush would give everyone a big reason to move west Wealth
Culture on the trail The gold rush up rotted families. Normally the wife of the family was consulted. A mix of Europeans and Chinese began to move west as well for similar reasons. The Chinese were known as the major labor for building the railroads.
Land Grabs The other reason people moved west was the hope of land promised by the government. The government owned around 1 billion acres of land. Between 1862 and 1890 they gave away 48 million acres 100 million acres were sold to private companies 128 million were given out to Railroad companies