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Go ask Alice When she is 10 feet tall! PowerPoint Presentation
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Go ask Alice When she is 10 feet tall!

Go ask Alice When she is 10 feet tall!

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Go ask Alice When she is 10 feet tall!

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  1. Go ask Alice When she is 10 feet tall! Drugs (toxicology)

  2. Drugs and Abuse • Drug - a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other animals • Drug abuse is epidemic in proportions • Accounts for >75% of evidence currently being evaluated in crime labs

  3. Drug Dependence • Psychological dependence(need it mentally): “the conditional use of drug caused by underlying emotional needs” • Intensity of dependence depends on drug used • High dependence: alcohol, heroin, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine • Lower dependence: marijuana, codeine • Physical dependence(need it physically): “physiological need for a drug that has been brought about by its regular use. - Characterized by withdrawal sickness when administration of the drug is abruptly stopped.”

  4. Classes of Drugs • Narcotics - relief from pain and causes sleep (now generally means a socially unacceptable drug) • Hallucinogens- alter normal thoughts, perceptions and moods • Depressants - depress functions of central nervous system, cause calm and bring about sleepiness • Stimulants - increase alertness and activity • Steroids - promote muscle growth

  5. Narcotics or Analgesics • Provides relief from pain and produces sleep • Relieves pain by depressing central nervous system (CNS) • Repeated, prolonged use will result in physiological dependence Source: opium from poppy plant pod • Morphine content ranging from 14%-21% • Heroin – morphine derivative

  6. Abused Drugs • Narcotics: relief from pain • Analgesic - relieve pain by depressing central nervous system • (opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, opiates). • Cocaine (stimulant), Marijuana (hallucinogen), etc are NOTclassified as narcotics even though they are frequently called that. • Most narcotics are opium derived. • Opium from Poppy plants (sap is • 4- 21% opium). Opium Poppy

  7. Opiates • Synthetically prepared • Similar effects as opium derivatives • Oxycontin • Methadone – taken with heroin or morphine, highs

  8. The looks of opiates

  9. Heroin Acetic anhydride Morphine • Water Soluble - easy IV use • Rapid onset but short term (2-3 hrs) effects • Field test uses reagent called marquis; purple color indicates positive test • Chemical derivative of morphine • Usually street drug 20-30% pure Heroin

  10. Heroin Forms Heroin Packages Black Tar Heroin Heroin Powder

  11. Street Names • Morphine:Morpho, Unkie, M Miss Emma, Hocus • Codeine:Schoolboy • Heroine:Snow, Stuff, Harry, H, White Horse, Horse, Hard Stuff, White Stuff, Joy Powder, Scag, Junk • Methadone:Dollies, Methadose

  12. Hallucinogens • Drugs that cause marked changes in normal thought processes, perceptions and moods (ex Marijuana, PCP, LSD, mescaline, MDMA, ecstasy).

  13. Marijuana • slang terms vary from one part of the country to another • Older terms: pot, herb, grass, weed, Mary Jane, and reefer • Newer terms: Aunt Mary, skunk, boom, gangster, kif, or ganja • Prior to 1970, classified as a narcotic drug • Mind altering • Hashish is the concentrated preparation • Active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol(THC) • Can tentatively be identified by the Duquenois-Levine color test • NOT synthesized from Canniabis sativa

  14. How long does Marijuana stay in the body? • THC is readily absorbed by fatty tissues in various organs • Generally, traces of THC can be detected by standard urine testing methods several days after a smoking session • In heavy, chronic users, traces can sometimes be detected for weeks after they have stopped using marijuana

  15. Other Hallucinogens • Phencyclidine (PCP) Street Names: Angel Dust, Crystal, Hog, Supergrass, Killer Joints, Ozone, Wack, Embalming Fluid, and Rocket Fuel. Easily Synthesized. • Mescaline • Psilocybin • Street Name: Shrooms, Mushies, and Mexican Magic Mushrooms • LSD • Street Names: Acid, Boomers, Yellow Sunshines, Cid, Doses, and Trips • Ecstacy

  16. LSD • From lysergic acid, derived from ergot fungus that attacks certain grasses and grains • Very potent; little needed to cause vivid visuals hallucinations that can last for 12 hours • Produces marked changes in mood – anxiety and tension

  17. PCP PCP • Easily synthesized • Mixed with LSD or amphetamines and sold as “angel dust” • Effects: • Feelings of strength, vulnerability and a dreamy sense of detachment • Unresponsive, confused & agitated • Irritability, isolation, hallucinations and paranoia

  18. Depressants • alcohol, barbituates, tranquilizers • “Downers” – create a relaxed feeling of well-being, produces sleep • Usually taken orally • Also includes tranquilizers and “glue sniffing” • Effect central nervous system • Major problems: chemical exposure causes permanent liver, kidney, heart and brain damage

  19. Alcohol (ethanol) • Depressant • Continued use may lead to physical dependency

  20. Barbituates • Derivatives of barbituric acid (not natural) • Commonly used for medicinal purposes • Slang terms: • Usually stem from color of capsule or tablet • Yellow jackets • Blue devils • Reds

  21. Tranquilizers • Considered depressants, but do not impair higher level thinking skills • Used to reduce anxiety in patients • Mild tranquilizers are prescribed to deal with everyday tensions

  22. Stimulants • Increase alertness and activity • “uppers” or “speed” • Synthetic drugs that stimulate the CNS • Can be taken by injection, ingestion or inhalation • Once stimulant wears off, severe depression usually sets in, requiring more stimulant (speed binge) • Cocaine • Amphetamines

  23. Amphetamine abuse • Primarily from injection • Looking for more intense experience • Prolonged speed binges result in sleeping for a couple of days followed by severe depression following the high

  24. Methamphetamine • Smokeable form known as “ice” • Produces effects similar to crack cocaine, but last longer • Once effects wear off, users may sleep for days • Chronic users exhibit violent destructive behavior and acute psychosis like paranoid schizophrenia • Repeated use results in psychological dependency

  25. Signs of Meth Addiction Spending Tons of Money Extreme Sex Drive / No Sex drive Nightmares / Hallucinations Pushes Away Friends & Family / Lives in Seclusion Slurred Speech / Rapid Speech False Sense of Motivation Morals & Values Diminish Obsessive Lying Panic Attacks / Aggression Extreme Fatigue / Increased Alertness Gazing / Blank Stare Enamel on Teeth Rot Respiratory Disorders Dizziness Tooth Grinding Dry or Itchy skin Acne / Sores Numbness Extreme Sweating Chest pain Hypertension / Elevated Blood Pressure Accelerated Heartbeat Damage to Blood Vessels Extreme Nervousness, Anxiety, Irritability Dilated Pupils Seizures, Strokes Nose Bleeds, Runny Nose, Sniffing Excessively. Rapid Speech Ears Ringing Problems Voiding Body Waste Passing Out Heart Races Irregular Rapid Jaw Movement Translucent Skin Misses Work Frequently Equilibrium Problems Poor Bathing Habits Brittle Hair Impaired Judgment Blurred Vision Dizziness Euphoria / Dreamlike Stage Nose Flesh Eaten Menstrual Cycle Stops Loss of Fetus Paranoia / Phobic Disorders Fighting Dehydration Kidney Problems Biting Finger Nails Can't Sleep, Days & Weeks Can't Eat, Days & Weeks Can't Drink, Days & Weeks Picking at Skin / Bloody Scabs Rapid Weight Loss

  26. Cocaine • Derived from leaves of erythroxylon coca plant • Originally used as a local painkiller or anesthetic • Powerful stimulate of the CNS • Sniffed or snorted and absorbed into body through mucus membranes of the nose • Chronic use/ high doses have toxic effects • Cause: Cardiac arrests • Seizures • Respiratory arrests • Experiments have shown cocaine causes the strongest psychological dependency

  27. Crack • Cocaine processed with baking powder (sodium bicarbonate) is "crack", a smokable version of cocaine with a shorter but more intense hit • It's called 'crack' after the sound it makes when you light it. It can quickly induce a psychological dependency.

  28. Club Drugs/Date Rape Drugs

  29. Club Drugs • Synthetic drugs used at nightclubs, bars and raves • Tablets easily hidden in Pez dispensers • Stimulatory effect allows users to be active for extended periods of time • Include: • MDMA (Ecstacy) • GHB (gamma hyroxybutyrate) • Rohypnol (Roofies) • Ketamine

  30. Date Rape Drugs Ketamine Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) MDMA (Ecstacy) GHB

  31. Date Rape Drugs • GHB(depressant) • Effects: Dizziness, sedation, headache, nausea • Recreational users feel euphoric, relaxed, a loss of inhibitions and increased libido • Effects can be felt within 15 minutes after ingestion. • Mixed with alcohol, GHB can cause the central nervous system to shut down, lead to loss of consciousness, and possibly result in a coma or death • Rohypnol(depressant) • Effects: Muscle relaxation, loss of consciousness, and inability to remember what happened hours after ingestion of the drug • Effects begin within 30 minutes, peak within 2 hours, and may persist for up to 8 hours or more, depending upon the dosage

  32. Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) • Street Names: Roofies, Rophies, Roche, Forget-me Pill, Circles, Mexican Valium, Rib, Roach-2, Roopies, Rope, Ropies, Ruffies, and Roaches • Manufacturer recently reformulated the drug to make it more detectable. • When put in a light-colored drink, new Rohypnol will turn the beverage bright blue. • Consumers of darker-colored beverages should be tipped off by a cloudy appearance.

  33. Ecstacy(hallucinogen) • Most popular drug at club scenes • Causes psychological difficulties, including confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety • Decreases inhibitions • Known as MDMA (Adam, XTC, Bean, E, M, and Roll) • Ecstasy comes in a tablet that is often branded, some are shown below: • Proponents claim risks associated with Ecstasy can be minimized by drinking lots of water.

  34. Ketamine(hallucinogen) • Veterinarian Medicine (an animal anesthetic) • Causes the person to feel as if their mind is “separated” from the body • Causes euphoria & feeling of unreality in humans Ketamine Powder

  35. Anabolic Steroids • Synthetic compounds chemically related to testosterone • Accelerates muscle growth without development of secondary sex characteristics • Most common used in athletics • Usually taken by individuals unfamiliar with harmful side effects

  36. Side effects • Liver cancer & liver malfunctions • Masculinizing effects on females • Infertility • Diminished sex drive in males • Premature halting of bone growth in teenagers • Unpredictable effects on mood & personality resulting in unprovoked acts of anger & destructive behavior • depression

  37. Drug Control Laws • Medical and legal classifications of drugs are not the same • Severity of penalties may depend on: • Amount (weight) of drug • Concentration of drug in mixture Controlled Substances Act (1970) • 5 schedules of classification • Classification based on: • Drug’s potential for abuse • Physical & psychological dependence (how addictive are they) • Medical value

  38. Schedule I • Substance has a high potential for abuse • Substance currently has no accepted medical use in the US • There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision • Include: Heroin, LSD, Marijuana

  39. Schedule II • Substance has a high potential for abuse • Substance currently has an accepted medical use intreatment in the U.S. with severe restrictions • Abuse of the substance may lead to severepsychological or physical dependence • Include: Morphine, PCP, cocaine, methadone,methamphetamine

  40. Schedule III • Substance has a potential for abuse less than thosein Schedules I and II • Currently has an accepted medical use in treatmentin the U.S. • Abuse may lead to moderate or low physicaldependence or high psychological dependence • Include: Anabolic steroids, codeine, hydrocodonewithaspirin or Tylenol

  41. Schedule IV • The substance has a low potential for abuserelative to those in Schedule III • Currently has an accepted medical use intreatment in the U.S. • Abuse may lead to limited physicaldependence or psychological dependencerelative to those in Schedule III • Include: Librium, Darvon, Xanax, Valium (tranquilizers)

  42. Schedule V • The substance has low potential for abuse relative those in Schedule IV • Currently has an accepted medical use in treatmentin the U.S. • Abuse may lead to limited physical orpsychological dependence relative to thosesubstances in Schedule IV • Include: Over-the-counter cough medicines with codeine

  43. Poisons and Toxins Two general categories: 1. Corrosive Poison ex. acids or bases 2. Metabolic poisons: act on biochemical process ex. carbon monoxide, cyanide, heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic)

  44. Drug Identification • Analysis must leave no room for error • A step by step procedure must be in place for determining the identity of the drug • 2 phases: • Screening tests –reduce the possible identities of the drug to a reasonable number • Confirmation tests – narrow down the possible identities to a single one • Tests include: color, microcrystalline, chromatography, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry

  45. Color Tests • Specific colors are seen when in contact with specific chemical reagents • Provide an indicator of drug’s presence • Allows field examination of substances to determine if drugs are present

  46. Microcrystalline Tests • Drop of chemical reagent added to small quantity of drug. • Crystalline precipitate forms • Microscopic examination of crystals can identify certain drugs such as heroin • Tests are rapid and do not require isolation of the drug

  47. Collection & Preservation of Drug Evidence • Packaging must prevent loss of contents and/or cross contamination • Original container usually a good package • Volatile substances must be packaged in airtight containers to prevent evaporation of the solvent • Packages marked with enough information to “ensure identification by the officer in future legal proceedings and to establish chain of custody.” • Supply any background info regarding drug’s identity