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Finishing up APA & Ethics

Finishing up APA & Ethics

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Finishing up APA & Ethics

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  1. Finishing up APA &Ethics Psych 231: Research Methods in Psychology

  2. Exam 1: Coming up soon (Monday, Sept 19; that’s 1 week from today!) • CITI ethics assignment is posted (see link on syllabus) • Not due until week 7, but since ethics is covered on Exam 1, I recommend checking it out sooner rather than later Announcements

  3. The ultimate resource for APA style is the APA Publication manual New 6th ed. • Chapter 8 of your textbook is good too. • Also websites to help too. Writing resources

  4. Writing the paper is the routine part of the research process • Forces you to commit to your evidence and conclusions • Just the facts • The facts are just part of the argument that the author is making • What you say is all that is important, how you say it isn’t important • Good writing leads to higher chance of accomplishing your goals Misconceptions about Scientific writing

  5. Psychological writing tends to differ from other academic writings • Not a creative writing exercise • Presenting an argument based on data and logical reasoning • Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things in your own words. • Avoid digression • Footnotes are rare, they’re used to elaborate/clarify a point. Try to do so in the text. • If long digressions, use the appendix Writing style

  6. To ease communication of what was done • Forces a minimal amount of information • Provides a logical framework (for argument) • Provides consistent format within a discipline • People know what to expect • Where to find the information in the article • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily Why a structured format?

  7. Communicate with clarity Major goal: Clarity

  8. Communicate with clarity Major goal: Clarity

  9. Communicate with clarity • Write for the reader • Think about your audience, what do they already know, what don’t they know • Avoid overstatements • Be conservative in your claims • Emphasize the positive • Focus on how the data supports a theory not just on how it refutes another theory Major goal: Clarity

  10. Communicate with clarity • Avoid • Jargon when possible • Slang and colloquialisms • Sexist and biased language • Try to be concise • Don’t use a whole paragraph when two sentences will do • Longer papers don’t mean better papers • Eliminate unnecessary redundancy • Use simple words (sentences) rather than complicated words (sentences) Major goal: Clarity

  11. Use concrete words and examples • Check your work! • Read it over, make sure that you say what you mean to say • Use a consistent format (APA style) • It helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on. • It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments • Communicate with clarity Major goal: Clarity

  12. Adolescent Depression 2 We explored attachment in a family context by applying family systems principles to the investigation of multiple attachment relationships within families. This study focused on maternal adult attachment with respect to family of origin experiences. We examined associations between maternal adult attachment and three levels of family functioning including individual maternal depression symptoms, dyadic marital satisfaction and family unit functioning. We found that attachment security with respect to particular relationships was differentially associated with different levels of family functioning. • Abstract • Body Adolescent Depression 29 References Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression: Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April). Transmission of attachment across three generations. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989). Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K. (1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93. • References • Authors Notes • Footnotes • Tables • Figure Captions • Figures • Title Page Adolescent Depression 1 Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye Purdue University APA style: Parts of a research report

  13. The basic parts of a research article: • Title and authors- gives you a general idea of the topic and specifically who did it • Abstract- short summary of the article The anatomy of a research article

  14. Running head – will go on each page of published article, no more than 50 characters Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION 1 Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye Topnotch University Title should be maximally informative while short (10 to 12 words recommended) Order of Authorship sometimes carries meaning Affiliation – where the bulk of the research was done • Published title pages will look a bit different, but you’ll find these pieces of information. Typically the body of the article will begin as well. Title Page

  15. Abstract: Short summary of entire paper • 150-250 words • The problem/issue • The method • The results • The major conclusions • Recommendation: write this after you’ve finished the rest of the paper • Good first contact, but remember that it is short on detail • Shows up in PsycInfo • Gets skimmed before reading the article Abstract

  16. Start broad • Hourglass shape • Background • Literature Review Body

  17. Narrow focus • Hourglass shape • Statement of purpose • Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual level) Body

  18. Most focused • Hourglass shape - Methods - Results Body

  19. Broaden • Hourglass shape • Discussion • Conclusions • Implications Body

  20. Introduction - gives you the background that you need • Issue and Background • What is it? Why is it interesting/important? • Literature Review • What has been done? What theories are out there? • Statement of purpose • What are you going to do and why? • Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual level) • What do you predict will happen in your research? Body

  21. Writing checklist • Be cohesive • Be relevant (why are the reviewed studies relevant?) • Work on the transitions (make the flow logical) • Introduction - gives you the background that you need • Reading checklist • 1) What is the author's goal? • 2) What are the hypotheses? • 3) If you had designed the study, how would YOU have done it? Body

  22. Method - tells the reader exactly what was done • Enough detail that the reader could actually replicate the study. • Subsections: • Participants - who were the data collected from • How many, where they were selected from, any special selection requirements, details about those who didn’t complete the experiment • Apparatus/ Materials - what was used to conduct the study • Design • Suggested if you have a complex experimental design, often combined with Materials section • Procedure • What did each participant do? Other details, including the operational levels of your IV(s) and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc. • The basic parts of a research article : Body

  23. Method - tells the reader exactly what was done • Reading checklist 1 a) Is your method better than theirs? b) Does the authors method actually test the hypotheses? c) What are the independent, dependent, and control variables? 2) Based on what the authors did, what results do YOU expect? • Writing checklist • Is it clear why the procedures were selected? • Are any assumptions explicit and defended? • Is the level of detail sufficient for replication? • The basic parts of a research article : Body

  24. Results (state the results but don’t interpret them here) • Verbal statement of results • Tables and figures • These get referred to in the text, but actually get put into their own sections at the end of the manuscript • Statistical Outcomes • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlations, etc. Body

  25. Results (state the results but don’t interpret them here) • Reading checklist • 1) Did the author get unexpected results? • 2 a) How does the author interpret the results? • b) How would YOU interpret the results? • c) What implications would YOU draw from these results? • Writing checklist • Is it clear how the hypotheses are tested by the analyses? • Would a graph or table help clarify the results? • What questions might the reader still have, and how could I answer them in this section? Body

  26. Discussion (interpret the results) • Relationship between purpose and results • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution • Implications • Future directions (optional) • Reading checklist • 1 a) Does YOUR interpretation or the authors' interpretation best represent the data? • b) Do you or the author draw the most sensible implications and conclusions? • Writing checklist • Have you stated your most convincing argument? • Do the conclusions follow straightforwardly from the results? Body

  27. References • Author’s name • Year • Title of work • Publication information • Journal • Issue • Pages Adolescent Depression 29 References Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression: Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April). Transmission of attachment across three generations. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989). Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K. (1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93. When something odd comes up, don’t guess. Look it up! The rest

  28. References • Authors Notes (new guidelines put these on title page) • Footnotes • Tables • Figures and figure captions The rest

  29. These are used to supplement the text. • To make a point clearer for the reader. • Typically used for: • The design • Examples of stimuli • Patterns of results Figures and tables

  30. Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means Ethics

  31. Two basic categories of ethical concerns: • Need to consider the rights of our participants in our research • Need to behave ethically as scientists and practitioners Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  32. Consider ethics at each step • What measurement techniques will be used? • How are participants selected? • What methods may be used on the participant population? • What design is appropriate? • How are the data analyzed? • How are the results reported? Ethical Responsibilities in Research

  33. For the most part the researcher has the power • You know what is going to be done to the participants • Participants may feel like they have to do it Using humans in research

  34. Institutional Review Board • IRB Criteria • Minimize risk • Benefits > Risks • Equal opportunity sampling • Informed consent • Documentation of consent • Data monitoring • Privacy & Confidentiality Monitoring of ethics

  35. Respect for persons • Basic courtesy • Informed consent • Debriefing • Avoid deception • Beneficence • Protection from harm • Cost/Benefits analysis • Confidentiality • Justice • Freedom from coercion APA’s code of ethics www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html

  36. Information to allow a person to decide if they want to participate • Basic purpose of the study • Participation is voluntary • Risks involved • Benefits involved • Rights to refuse or terminate participation • Assent - guardians if participants are not competent • e.g., children, developmentally disabled people Informed consent

  37. Passive deception • Withholding information about the study • Active deception • Deliberately misleading participants Using deception in research

  38. Avoid it when possible • Alternatives to deception • Role-playing • When not possible to avoid • Make sure that you are up front with all possible risks • Potential results must be worth it • Must debrief participants as soon as possible (either right after participation or as soon as project is over) Using deception in research

  39. Costs: all potential risks to the participants • Physical harm • Psychological harm • Loss of confidentiality • Benefits: the “good” outcomes • Direct benefits to participants • Benefits to knowledge base • Benefits to world at large Costs/Benefits analysis

  40. Fraud prevention • Replication – repeat a research study to validate results • Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the same area • Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others Scientific Integrity

  41. Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out) • Questionable tricks (these are a little fuzzier, but be wary) • Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and sometimes necessary) Ethics in Science Quiz Ethical responsibility to science

  42. Dirty tricks • Questionable tricks • Neat tricks • Fabrication of results • Little or no attempt to minimize demand biases • Reformulating your theory as you go • Falsifying credentials • Plagiarism • Little or no attempt to minimize confounds • Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work • Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics Ethics in Science Quiz DT QT NT DT DT QT DT QT Ethical responsibility to science

  43. Dirty tricks • Questionable tricks • Neat tricks • Throwing out data • Reorganizing order of report of experiments • Violations of underlying statistical assumptions • Strategic graphing of the data • Duplicate publications (presented as new) • Selective reporting of the results • Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results) Ethics in Science Quiz QT or DT depends reason for throwing out NT QT QT DT QT NT Ethical responsibility to science