Introduction • Some people said : • "Ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong.“ • "Ethics has to do with my religious beliefs.“ • "Being ethical is doing what the law requires.“ • "Ethics consists of the standards of behavior our society accepts.“ • "I don't know what the word means."
DEFINITION • Ethics is two things. 1. Ethics refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. For example, refers to those standards that impose the reasonable obligations to refrain from rape, stealing, murder, assault, slander, and fraud. Ethical standards also include those that enjoin virtues of honesty, compassion, and loyalty. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy. Such standards are adequate standards of ethics because they are supported by consistent and well-founded reasons.
Cont… • Ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethical standards. Feelings, laws, and social norms can deviate from what is ethical. So it is necessary to constantly examine one's standards to ensure that they are reasonable and well-founded. Ethics also means, then, the continuous effort of studying our own moral beliefs and our moral conduct, and striving to ensure that we, and the institutions we help to shape, live up to standards that are reasonable and solidly-based.
Cont… • Ethics (Greek ethika, from ethos, ―character,custom), principles or standards of human conduct, sometimes called morals (Latin mores, ―customs), and, by extension, the study of such principles, sometimes called moral philosophy.
Ethics and morality in islam • The word “morality” comes from the Latin word moralitas meaning “manner, character, and proper behavior”. Morality generally refers to a code of conduct, that an individual, group or society hold as authoritative, in distinguishing right from wrong. Such an ideal code of conduct is often espoused in preference to other alternatives. • Islam’s moral system is striking in that it not only defines morality, but also guides the human race in how to achieve it, at both an individual as well as a collective level.
Cont…. • Islam is a comprehensive way of life, and morality is one of the cornerstones Islam. Morality is one of the fundamental sources of a nation’s strength, just as immorality is one of the main causes of a nation’s decline. • Islam has established some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be observed in all circumstances. To uphold these rights, Islam has provided not only legal safeguards, but also a very effective moral system. • Thus, whatever leads to the welfare of the individual or the society and does not oppose any maxims of the religion is morally good in Islam, and whatever is harmful is morally bad.
Sources of ethics • Islamic ethics (أخلاق إسلامية), defined as "good character," historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th century. • It was eventually shaped as a successful of the Qur'anic teachings, the teachings of the Sunnah of Muhammad, the precedents of Islamic jurists (see Sharia and Fiqh), the pre-Islamic Arabian tradition, and non-Arabic elements (including Persian and Greek ideas) embedded in or integrated with a generally Islamic structure. • Although Muhammad's preaching produced a "radical change in moral values based on the sanctions of the new religion and the present religion, and fear of God and of the Last Judgment", the tribal practice of Arabs did not completely die out. Later Muslim scholars expanded the religious ethic of the Qur'an and Hadith in immense detail.
Cont… • The prophet's (S.A.W.) high standard of manners made him a model for all Muslims to follow. The prophet (S.A.W.) used to emphasize how important good manners are for Muslims. For example, Imams Bukhari and Muslim reported that the prophet mentioned the following: • “The best of you is the best among you in conduct.” • In another authentic narration, the prophet (S.A.W.) mentioned that: • “The heaviest thing to be placed in the balance of a believing slave on the Day of Judgment will be good behavior. And Allah hates the one who uses bad language.” • Someone once asked the prophet (S.A.W.) what deed would lead a man to paradise, and he answered: • “Taqwa of Allah (piety) and good conduct.”
Cont… • In other hadithst he prophet (S.A.W.) made distinctions among Muslims based on their behaviors; the prophet (S.A.W.) said: • “The most perfect man in his faith, among the believers, is the one whose behavior is the most excellent; and the best of you are those who are the best to their wives.” • He even clarified that people will be on different levels in Paradise based on their good manners saying: • “The dearest and nearest among you to me on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who is the best in conduct…”
Characteristics of ethics • Honest • Refrain from gossip • Values diversity • Respect others
Cont… • The Noble Qur'an mentions several good acts of morality repeatedly, for example: • Dealing with your parents in the best manner • Being nice to your relatives and neighbours • Taking care of orphans and the poor • Telling the truth and being honest • Being sincere in all of your intentions • Fulfilling your promises • Treating all people fairly
Characteristics of Work ethics in islam • Honest • Responsibility • Ikhlas • Dedicated • Cleanliness and purity • Discipline • Thankful (Syukur)