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Chapter 12: Understanding Self and Others PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 12: Understanding Self and Others

Chapter 12: Understanding Self and Others

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Chapter 12: Understanding Self and Others

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  1. Chapter 12: Understanding Self and Others Module 12.1 Who Am I? Self-Concept Module 12.2 Self-Esteem Module 12.3 Understanding Others Children and Their Development, 3/e by Robert Kail

  2. 12.1 Who Am I? Self-Concept Origins of Self-Recognition The Evolving Self-Concept The Search for Identity

  3. By 15 months, infants begin to show self-recognition in mirror task At 18-24 months, children look more at photos of self than others and refer to self by name or personal pronoun Awareness of self extends to an understanding of ownership Self-concept comes from self-awareness 12.1 Origins of Self-Recognition

  4. Preschoolers mention concrete characteristics such as physical characteristics, preferences, possessions, and competencies At 6-8 years, begin to mention emotions, social groups, and comparisons to others Adolescents mention attitudes, personality traits, religious/political beliefs, variation with context, and an orientation to the future 12.1 The Evolving Self-Concept

  5. Developmental Changes in Self-Concept 12.1: The Evolving Self-Concept

  6. Adolescents use hypothetical reasoning to experiment with different selves Adolescence characterized by self-absorption, imaginary audience, personal fable, and illusion of invulnerability Stages of identity: diffusion,foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement Stages of career development: crystallization, specification, and implementation Most teens don’t experience conflict and turmoil 12.1 The Search for Identity

  7. Attitudes and Behaviors of Adolescents 12.1: The Search for Identity

  8. 12.2 Self-Esteem Measuring Self-Esteem Change and Stability in Self-Esteem Sources of Self-Esteem Consequences of Low Self-Esteem

  9. One common measure: Self-Perception Profile for Children Measures overall self-esteem as well as self-esteem in 5 specific areas: scholastic competence athletic competence social acceptance behavioral conduct physical appearance 12.2 Measuring Self-Esteem

  10. Sample Items and Profiles from SPPC 12.2: Measuring Self-Esteem

  11. Self-esteem is highest in preschoolers Drops during the elementary school years due to social comparisons Self-esteem sometimes drops when move to middle school or junior high Pattern of change in self-esteem varies for different domains Self-esteem becomes more differentiated 12.2 Change and Stability in Self-Esteem

  12. Changes in Self-Esteem 12.2: Change and Stability in Self-Esteem

  13. Children have higher self-esteem when parents are nurturing and involved and establish rules concerning discipline Comparisons with others (particularly peers) Self-esteem is high when others view positively and low when others view negatively Gifted children in gifted classes may have lower self-esteem than those in regular classes 12.2 Sources of Self-Esteem

  14. Percentage of Children Who View Selves Negatively 12.2: Sources of Self-Esteem

  15. Children with low self-esteem more likely to have problems with peers, have psychological disorders, be involved in antisocial behavior, and do poorly in school Sometimes difficult to establish cause and effect relations regarding low self-esteem 12.2 Consequences of Low Self-Esteem

  16. 12.3 Understanding Others Describing Others Understanding What Others Think Prejudice

  17. Descriptions of others follow similar course as descriptions of self Descriptions that include appearance and possessions become less common Between 8 and 14 years, descriptions of personality traits increases By 5 years, children use info in descriptions to predict others’ behavior 12.3 Describing Others

  18. Preschoolers are egocentric According to Selman, perspective taking increases with age and depends on cognitive development Selman’s 5 Stages: undifferentiated, social-informational, self-reflective, third-person, and societal Children with good perspective-taking skills get along better with their peers 12.3 Understanding What Others Think

  19. Prejudice: a negative view of others Preschoolers and kindergarteners attribute many positive traits to their own group Usually declines some during elementary school, but increases during adolescence due to exposure to prejudice around them and an increased preference for own group Can reduce prejudice by encouraging friendly, constructive contact between groups and role playing 12.3 Prejudice