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Circulatory System in Animals PowerPoint Presentation
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Circulatory System in Animals

Circulatory System in Animals

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Circulatory System in Animals

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  1. Circulatory Systemin Animals

  2. Feeding Energy Needs • Why do we need a circulatory system? • supplies in • fuel (sugars) • digestive system • oxygen • respiratory system • waste out • CO2 • respiratory system • need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body • circulatory system

  3. Simple organisms When your body is only 2-cell layers thick, you can get supplies in and waste out just through diffusion • all cells within easy reach of fluid Jellyfish Hydra

  4. Complex organisms • Circulatory system • made up of 3 parts • organ • heart • tissues & cells • blood vessels • arteries • veins • capillaries • blood • red blood cells • plasma

  5. Circulatory systems • All animals have: • muscular pump = heart • tubes = blood vessels • circulatory fluid = “blood” open closed hemolymph blood

  6. Vertebrate Heart • 4-Chambered heart • atria (atrium) • thin wall • collection chamber • receive blood • ventricles • thick wall pump • pump blood out leftatrium rightatrium rightventricle leftventricle

  7. Evolution of circulatory system Not everyone has a 4-chambered heart fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber V A A A A A A A V V V V V

  8. Lub-dub, lub-dub • 4 valves in the heart • flaps of connective tissue • prevent backflow • Heart sounds • closing of valves • “Lub” • force blood against closed AV valves • “Dub” • force of blood against semilunar valves • Heart murmur • leaking valve causes hissing sound • blood squirts backward through valve SL AV AV

  9. Electrical signals • heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses • signal also transmitted to skin = EKG stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract

  10. Cardiac Cycle ventriclesfill How is this reflected in blood pressure measurements? systolic ________ diastolic chambers fill pump(peak pressure) _________________ fill(minimum pressure) 110 ________ 80 ventriclespump

  11. Measurement of blood pressure if systolic > 150 or if diastolic > 90 hypertension =(high blood pressure)

  12. Have a heart?Ask Questions!!

  13. Circulatory SystemBlood Vessels

  14. Blood vessels arteries veins artery arterioles venules arterioles capillaries venules veins

  15. Arteries: Built for their job • Arteries • blood flows away from heart • thicker walls • provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood • elastic & stretchable • maintains blood pressure even when heart relaxes

  16. Major arteries aorta carotid= to head to brain & left arm to right arm to body pulmonaryartery pulmonaryartery=to lungs coronary arteries

  17. Coronary artery bypass bypass surgery

  18. Veins: Built for their job Blood flows toward heart • Veins • blood returns back to heart • thinner-walled • blood travels back to heart at low speed & pressure • why low pressure? • far from heart • blood flows because muscles contract when we move • squeeze blood through veins • valves in large veins • in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart Openvalve Closed valve

  19. Major Veins superiorvena cava= from upper body pulmonaryvein= from lung pulmonaryvein = from lung inferiorvena cava= from lower body

  20. Structure-function relationship • Capillaries • very thin walls • allows diffusion of materials across capillary • O2, CO2, H2O, food, waste body cell waste CO2 O2 food

  21. Circulation of Blood Circulationto lungs • 2 part system • Circulation to lungs • blood gets O2 from lungs • drops off CO2 to lungs • brings O2-rich blood from lungs to heart • Circulation to body • pumps O2-rich blood to body • picks up nutrients from digestive system • collects CO2 & cell wastes lungs heart body Circulationto body

  22. Vertebrate circulatory system • 2 part system lungs arteryto lungs vein from lungsto heart heart vein from bodyto heart artery to body body

  23. Stops along the way… • Lungs • pick up O2 / clean out CO2 • Small Intestines • pick up nutrients from digested food • Large Intestines • pick up water from digested food • Liver • clean out worn out blood cells

  24. More stops along the way… • Kidneys • filters out wastes (urea) • extra salts, sugars & water • Bone • picks up new red blood cells • Spleen • picks up new white blood cells

  25. ATP CO2 O2 Circulatory System & Homeostasis • Homeostasis • keeping the internal environment of the body balanced • need to balance food & O2 in • need to balance energy (ATP) production • need to balance CO2 & waste out • Exercise • heart beat faster • need more ATP • bring in more O2 & food; remove more CO2 & waste out • Disease • poor lung or heart function = heart beat faster • need to work harder to bring in O2 & food & remove wastes food waste

  26. Have a heart?Ask Questions!!

  27. Circulatory SystemBlood

  28. Blood & blood cells • Blood is a tissue of fluid & cells • plasma • liquid part of blood • dissolved salts, sugars, proteins, and more • cells • red blood cells (RBC) • transport O2 in hemoglobin • white blood cells (WBC) • defense & immunity • platelets • blood clotting

  29. Blood Cell production ribs, vertebrae, breastbone & pelvis • Stem cells • “parent” cells in bone marrow • differentiate into many different types of cells white blood cells white bloodcells red bloodcells

  30. Red blood cells • Small round cells • produced in bone marrow • 5 liters of blood in body • 5-6 million RBC in drop of human blood • last 3-4 months (120 days) • filtered out by liver • ~3 million RBC destroyed each second

  31. Hemoglobin • Protein which carries O2 • 250,000 hemoglobins in 1 red blood cell O2 O2 O2 O2

  32. emergency repair of circulatory system Blood clotting chemicalemergencysignals plateletsseal the hole protein fibersbuild the clot

  33. Cardiovascular disease • Atherosclerosis & Arteriosclerosis • deposits inside arteries (plaques) • develop in inner wall of the arteries, narrowing their channel • increase blood pressure • increase risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney damage normal artery hardening of arteries

  34. Cardiovascular health bypass surgery • Risk Factors • genetics • diet • high animal fat • exercise & lifestyle • smoking • lack of exercise

  35. Heart Disease Heart disease death rates 1996-2002Adults ages 35 and older

  36. Women & Heart Disease Death rates for heart disease per 100,000 women, 2002 • Heart disease is 3rd leading cause of death among women aged 25–44 years & 2nd leading cause of death among women aged 45–64 years. Risk factors • Smoking • Lack of exercise • High fat diet • Overweight

  37. Have a heart?Ask Questions!!