Unit Three 3.1 Drive Line

# Unit Three 3.1 Drive Line

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## Unit Three 3.1 Drive Line

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1. Unit Three3.1 Drive Line

2. Contents • Pre-questions II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

3. Pre-questions • How many main units does the drive line assembly consist of? What are they？ • The drive line assembly consists of six main units. • They are clutch, transmission, drive shaft, final drive, differential and the driving wheels. Diagram of car showing clutch location

4. Pre-questions • How does the drive line work? • The drive line carries power from the engine crankshaft to the driving wheels, so the wheels rotate and the automobile moves.

5. II. Text Explanation Fig.3-1 Drive Line 1-clutch; 2-transmission; 3-universal joint; 4-final drive; 5-differential; 6-drive shaft

6. II. Text Explanation • The typical drive line comprises clutch, transmission, drive shaft, final drive, differential and the driving wheels. • 译文：典型传动系统一般包括离合器、变速器、传动轴、主减速器、差速器和驱动轮等六部分。

7. II. Text Explanation • When you lift the clutch pedal, springs force the pressure plate and clutch plate against the flywheel. • 译文：当抬起踏板时，压缩弹簧将压盘和从动盘推向飞轮。

8. II. Text Explanation • A manual transmission requires a clutch to apply and remove the engine torque to the transmission input shaft. • 译文：手动变速器需要用离合器来把发动机转矩施加给变速器输入轴或从变速器输入轴撤消。

9. II. Text Explanation • When the car is on straight road, the ring gear, differential case, differential pinion gears, and two differential side gears all turn as a unit without any relative motion. • 译文：汽车在直线行驶时，齿圈、差速器壳、差速器行星齿轮和两个差速器半轴齿轮作为一个整体运转，而无任何相对运动 。

10. II. Text Explanation • The drive shafts are usually hollow in order to weigh less, but of a large diameter so that they are strong . • 译文：传动轴通常是空心的以减轻重量，但直径比较大使它有足够的强度。

11. manual transmission reverse idler gears gear ratios drive shaft clutch plate differential universal joint coil spring pressure plate synchronizer 手动变速器 倒档齿轮 齿轮齿数比 传动轴 离合器片 差速器 万向节 螺旋弹簧 压盘 同步器 III. Exercises • I.Translate the following expressions into Chinese.

12. III. Exercises • II. Identify the English names of the drive line according to the picture. • 1 engine ; 2 transmission; 3 drive shaft; 4 driving wheel; • 5clutch; 6 universal joint; 7final drive

13. III. Exercises • III. Read the following passage carefully and fill in the blanks with the proper form of the given words. • The (differential ) system is part of the rear-axle-housing (assembly ), which includes the differential, (rear axles ), wheel and (bearings). • If the automobile were to be driven in a (straight ) line without having to make turns, then no differential would be necessary. However, when the automobile rounds a turn, the (outer ) wheel must travel farther than the (inner ) wheel. The differential (permits) the two rear wheels to rotate (different ) amounts when the automobile goes around a turn, while still (delivering • ) power to both rear wheels.

14. III. Exercises • IV. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. • 1. Although there are many types of clutch, the dry single plate type of traction clutch is used almost exclusively in passenger cars. • 2. The pressure on driven disk fitted onto the splined portion of shaft is provided by springs installed between the housing and pressure driving disks. • 3. The universal joint or U-joints is used to connect the dive shaft to the transmission output shaft and the differential pinion gear shaft.

15. 1.虽然离合器的种类很多，但客车上采用最多的还是单片干式离合器。1.虽然离合器的种类很多，但客车上采用最多的还是单片干式离合器。 • 2.从动盘安装在传动轴的花键槽内，从动盘上的压力来自弹簧的弹力，这些弹簧安装在离合器壳和主动盘之间。 • 3.万向节将动力输入轴、动力输出轴和差速器齿轮轴连接在一起。

16. V. Translate the following sentences into English. • 1. 如果快速运转的发动机突然与静止车辆的传动系相连接，就会产生强烈的冲击。 • 2. 离合器是一种用以连接和分离发动机和变速器的装置。 • 3. 装有自动变速器的汽车一般不需要离合器。

17. 1.It will have a strong impact when the spinning engine connects the stationary transmission. • 2.The clutch is a device which is designed to connect and disconnect the engine and the transmission. • 3. There is not clutch when the automobile equip automatic transmission.

18. Thank You !

19. Unit Three3.2 Clutch

20. Contents • Pre-questions II. Text Explanation III. Exercises

21. What will you do when you move the car？ What will you do when you change gears? First gear Depress the clutch pedal Depress the clutch pedal Neutral position Start the car second gear First gear Release the clutch pedal clutch Release parking brake and the clutch pedal and push down gas

22. Pre-questions • Where is the clutch in the automobile? A-engine B-clutch C-clutch pedal D-manual transmission Diagram of car showing clutch location

23. Pre-questions • What is the function of the clutch? • Connect or disconnect the power from the engine to the drive line.

24. Pre-questions • How many main parts does the clutch consist of? driving members control mechanisms pressing mechanisms driven members

25. II. Text Explanation • In a car, you need a clutch because the engine spins all the time, but the car's wheels do not. • spin [spin] vt. & vi. 使…旋转 • 译文：汽车上需要一个离合器，因为发动机一直在旋转，而车轮却不是（一直旋转）。

26. II. Text Explanation • In order to stop without killing the engine, the wheels need to be disconnected from the engine somehow. • somehow 以某种方式，不知怎么 • 译文：为了使停车时发动机不熄火，车轮需要以某种方式与发动机断开连接。这句话中killing the engine 表示使发动机熄火

27. Somehow • 我们必须设法在明天早上以前把工作做完。 • We must get the work finished somehow by tomorrow morning. • 不知怎么地我们迷了路。 • Somehow we lost our way.

28. II. Text Explanation • The clutch（shown in Fig. 3-2） allows us to smoothly engage a spinning engine to a non-spinning transmission by controlling the slippage between them. • slippage [’slipidʒ] n. 滑动 • 译文：离合器（图3-2所示）允许我们将旋转的发动机和不转的变速器平稳地连接起来，这种连接通过控制它们之间的相对滑动来实现。

29. Fig. 3-2 Clutch 1-pressure plate; 2-driven disk; 3-flywheel; 4-clutch cover

30. II. Text Explanation • Most cars equipped with a manual transmission use a single clutch disc, a diaphragm type spring，a pressure plate and clutch cover assembly, a clutch release bearing, and a clutch release fork. • single clutch disc 单片离合器盘 • diaphragm type spring 膜片式弹簧 • pressure plate 压盘 • clutch cover 离合器盖 • release bearing 分离轴承 • release fork 分离叉

31. driven disk

32. Pressure plate and cover cover pressure plate flywheel

33. release levers and release yoke release levers release yoke

34. II. Text Explanation • The clutch has a clutch disc as its major part, and the clutch disc consists of a circular metal plate attached to a reinforced splined hub. • circular [’sə:kjulə]adj. 圆形的, 环形的; 循环的 • reinforce [’ri:ɪn,fɔ:s]vt. 增强; 加强 • splined hub 花键毂 • 译文：离合器有一个离合器盘作为主要部件，离合器盘包括一个圆形的金属盘，它与强化的花键毂连接在一起。attached to a reinforced splined hub 是过去分词短语作状语修饰metal plate

35. II. Text Explanation • The splined hub is free to slide lengthwise along the splines of the transmission input shaft. • lengthwise [’leŋθwaiz] adv. 纵长地, 纵向地 • 译文：（离合器的）花键毂可以沿着变速器输入轴的花键自由滑动。

36. II. Text Explanation • In its operating position in the engine/transmission linkup, the clutch disc is sandwiched between the engine flywheel and clutch pressure plate. • sandwich [’sænwidʒ] n. 三明治vt. 1 把…夹在…之间 2 挤在…中间  • 译文：在发动机和变速器接合状态下，离合器盘被夹在发动机飞轮和离合器压盘之间。

37. sandwich • 把一片火腿夹在两片面包之间就做成了火腿三明治。 • To make a ham sandwich you put a slice of ham between two slices of bread. • 在公共汽车上, 他被挤在两个胖女人中间。 • He was sandwiched between two very fat women on the bus.

38. II. Text Explanation • The clutch fork and linkage provide the means of converting the up-and-down movement of the clutch pedal to the back-and-forth movement of the clutch release bearing assembly. • means [mi:nz]n. 方法, 手段  • 译文：离合器分离叉和连接件提供了将离合器踏板的上下运动转化为离合器分离轴承机构的前后运动的一种方法。

39. means • 科学家们正在为发明一种能储存这种动力的方法而工作。 • Scientists are working to devise a means of storing this type of power.

40. coil-pressure-spring type diaphragm-spring type

41. clutch release fork drive train driving axles pressure plate diaphragm type splined hub coil spring diaphragm release fingers friction disks engagement and disengagement 分离叉 传动系 传动轴 压盘 膜片式 花键毂 螺旋弹簧 膜片弹簧分离杠杆 摩擦盘 分离和接合 III. Exercises • I. Translate the following expressions into Chinese.

42. III. Exercises • II. Identify the English names of clutch according to the picture. 1-friction disk 2-spring 3-splined hub 4-driven disk 5-pressure plate 6- locating studs 7-diaphragm spring 8-fulcrum ring 9-clutch cover

43. III. Read the following passage carefully and fill in the blanks with the proper form of the given words. • The clutch release mechanism can be operated either (mechanically) or (hydraulically). The mechanically operated release mechanism consists of a (pedal ), a (return spring ), a shaft with lever, a rod, a release yoke (lever ), a release yoke, a release ball bearing with support and a clutch release spring.

44. When the clutch pedal is (depressed ), the rod and shaft with yoke shift the release bearing and support (assembly ). The release bearing presses the inner ends of the release levers, the pressure (driven) is moved away from the (plate) disk and the clutch is disengaged. To (engage • ) the clutch, the pedal is released, the release bearing and support assembly is shifted back by the return spring thus releasing the releasing levers so that the pressure plate is forced by its springs towards the flywheel to clamp the driven disk and engage the clutch.

45. IV. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. • 1. The clutch is a device used to provide smooth engagement and disengagement of engine and transmission. • 2. Every vehicle has an engine which provides the starting power, but the engine develops little power or torque at low rpm, and must gain speed before it moves a vehicle. • 3. If the rapidly rotating engine was suddenly connected to the driveline of a stationary vehicle, the engagement would not be soft.

46. 1.离合器是一种用以平稳连接和分离发动机和变速器的装置。1.离合器是一种用以平稳连接和分离发动机和变速器的装置。 • 2.每辆汽车都有一个提供动力的发动机，但是发动机在低速转动时几乎不产生动力或扭矩，而且发动机必须快速转动才能推动车辆前进。 • 3.如果快速转动的发动机突然与静止车辆的驱动系统相连，这种接合就不会柔和。

47. V. Translate the following sentences into English. • 1. 经过离合器的动力输出主要是由与发动机曲轴相连的一个或多个驱动元件与一个或多个动力输入轴相连的驱动元件相接触形成的。 • 2. 沿压盘和离合器之间的圆周均匀分布的弹簧夹住压盘与飞轮之间的从动盘。 • 3. 汽车离合器在构造上都很相似，只是在压紧机构和分离机构的细节上稍有不同。

48. 1. Power output by the clutch is mainly driven by the formation of tangency between one or more drive components connected to the engine crankshaft and others connected to the power input shaft. • 2. The spring evenly distributed between the circumference of the pressure plate clamps the clutch disc between the flywheel and pressure plate. • 3. All automotive clutches are very similar in construction, only different in the details of the pressure-plate assemblies and the separation.

49. Thank You !

50. Unit Three3.3 Manual Transmission