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The New Deal Forging a New Deal

The New Deal Forging a New Deal

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The New Deal Forging a New Deal

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  1. The New DealForging a New Deal Chapter 13 Section 1 Angela Brown

  2. The New Deal became FDR’s program of relief, recovery, and reform aimed at combating problems caused by the Depression. • FDR was not sure exactly how the New Deal would work…

  3. Restoring the Nation’s Hope • Both Eleanor and FDR smoothed public fears • Second Bonus March – provided campsites for veterans – Eleanor paid them a visit • Demonstrated new administrations approach to unrest • FDR’s “Fireside Chats” – address nation on radio the first Sunday after taking office • Easy manner and confidence made people feel better

  4. The First Hundred Days • Had promised “bold, persistent experimentation” no one knew what that would include • From March Inaugration – June 1933 • Pushed many programs through Congress to provide relief, create jobs and stimulate economic recovery

  5. Roosevelt • 2 forms of Public communications • met with press twice a week – put achievement and plans in headlines • Fireside Chats – talked about programs and purposes to the nation

  6. “It’s common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails admit it frankly and try another. But above all try something.” • Should government programs to help the elderly and poor be temporary responses to crisis or should they be permanent?

  7. Closing the Banks • March 5, 1933 – FDR ordered all banks to close for next four days • Pushed Congress to pass Emergency Banking Act • Authorized the government to inspect the financial health of all banks • Government found most banks healthy – 2/3 reopened by March 15 • Americans gained confidence in banking system

  8. They began to put more money into their accounts than they took out • Allowed banks to make loans that would help stimulate the economy • June – Congress established - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to insure bank deposits up to $5000. • Confidence increased further

  9. Providing Relief and Creating Jobs • May Congress passed Federal Emergency Relief Administration (Fera) • Sent funds to overburdened local relief agencies • Gave out $5 million in first two hours in office (Harry Hopkins) • Fera put money into Public – works programs – government funded projects to build public facilities

  10. Nov. 1933 Civil Works Administration (CWA) gave jobs building roads, parks, airports – 4 million employed – boosted moral • March 1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – FDR’s favorite program – 2.5 unmarried young men restored/maintained forests, beaches, and parks • CCC earned $1 a day – lived in camp free, received food, med. Care and job training

  11. Eleanor created similar program for young women 8500 took part • Native American workers built schools, hospitals, and irrigation systems (through Indian Affairs) • Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 – ended sale of tribal lands begun under Dawes Act (1887) and restored ownership of some lands to Indian groups.

  12. A Helping Hand to Business • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) – established the National Recovery Administration (NRA) – an agency that set out to balance the unstable economy through sensible planning • Industry wide codes to spell out fair practices – regulated wages, working conditions, production, and even prices, set a minimum wage and gave organized labor collective bargaining rights (allowed workers to negotiate as a group)

  13. Worked for a while but higher wages = higher prices – people stopped buying • Businesses soon complained that the codes were too complicated and control by the NRA was too rigid. • Best part of NIRA – Public Works Administration (PWA) – built Grand Caulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, Causeway connecting Key West to Florida Mainland, Triborough Bridge in NY City

  14. Federal Securities Act – required companies to provide information about their finances if they offered stock for sale • Congress reformed Stock Market • Congress set up Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate the stock market – tell companies what info must be included in their financial statements • Congress gave Federal Reserve board power to regulate the purchase of stock on-margin

  15. Saving Homes and Farms • Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC) refinanced, or reshaped terms of mortgage payments more manageable – 3 year period made about one million low-interest loans • Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) tried to raise farm prices through subsidies or government financial assistance • new tax used to pay farmers not to raise certain crops and animals

  16. Saving Homes and Farms • hoped lower production would raise prices • Many people could not understand destroying food while so many were hungry – (farmers plowed under crops to get subsidies)

  17. The TVA • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – May 1933 helped farmers and created jobs in one of the country’s least developed regions • Reactivating a hydroelectric power facility started during WWI = cheap electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tennesse River Valley

  18. New Deal Personnel • Frances Perkins – Sec. Of Labor until 1945 first woman in a cabinet post –pressed for laws to help employed and unemployed • Est. Department of Labor and the Bureau of Labor Statistics – min wage, max work week, disabled workers compensation • Two dozen women held key New Deal positions • African Americans held more than one hundred policy-making posts

  19. Mary McLeod – African American woman – highest position of any African American woman – director of the division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration • Advised FDR on programs that aided African Americans • Formed Federal Council on Negro Affairs – known as black cabinet – met weekly to prioritize

  20. Eleanor Roosevelt • Most important advisor/colleagues – traveled and reported on effect on programs • Wealthy, educated – FDR’s distant cousin – they had 6 children • During WWI volunteered • Reshaped position of First Lady – toured country in place of her husband

  21. Eleanor Roosevelt • Held own press conferences with women correspondences • Newspaper column “My Day” drummed up support for the New Deal • At Southern Conference for Human Welfare - interracial group – refused Jim Crow laws – sat in center aisle between divided races – symbolism of act made huge publicity – embarrassed FDR

  22. Eleanor Roosevelt • Eleanor’s activities troubled some Americans • First Lady should be a gracious hostess • many came to admire her unconventional style • (Compare to Hillary Clinton – Is there room for personal differences in the role of First Lady?)