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Data Structures & GeoDatabase

Data Structures & GeoDatabase. GeoDatabase. NEW!. In 9.2 the GDBs have significantly changed Mostly for the better New names (file, personal, scaleable) Easier to move data between GDBs Do NOT have to specify the EXTENT of the GDB – a big problem in 9.1 and earlier. The Geodatabase.

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Data Structures & GeoDatabase

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  1. Data Structures & GeoDatabase GeoDatabase

  2. NEW! • In 9.2 the GDBs have significantly changed • Mostly for the better • New names (file, personal, scaleable) • Easier to move data between GDBs • Do NOT have to specify the EXTENT of the GDB – a big problem in 9.1 and earlier.

  3. The Geodatabase It is a single container for many feature classes (FC) (layers, {themes} of any feature class type) Quite often the FCs are stored in Feature Datasets (FDS) Shapes become Feature Classes (FC) Data in a FDS can be topologically linked

  4. GeoDatabase Now • Three flavors of GDB • File • Personal • Scalable (was called Enterprise) • Supports a model of topologically integrated feature classes - 2D & 3D • Supports Data Models -- ArcHydro • Use can be simple or very complex! • In some applications database designers will be needed to tune the database operation! • Can use many different data structures

  5. The possibilities… From ESRI’s course Learning ArcGIS Desktop

  6. GeoDatabase • Three flavors of GDB • File • Personal • Scalable (was called Enterprise)

  7. File GDB • Stored as folders in a file system. • Can scale up to 1 TB in size. • This option is the currently recommended GDB • Only one user can edit at a time • Is much faster than other flavors

  8. Personal GDB • Stored within a Microsoft Access data file, which is limited in size to 2 GB. • One editor at a time

  9. Scaleable GDB • Also called an ArcSDE Geodatabases • Stored in a relational database using Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, or IBM Informix. • These multi-user Geodatabases require the use of ArcSDE and can be unlimited in size and numbers of users. • Much more complex and require professional computer types

  10. Scaleable GDB • Also called an ArcSDE Geodatabases • Stored in a relational database using Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, or IBM Informix. • These multi-user Geodatabases require the use of ArcSDE and can be unlimited in size and numbers of users. • Much more complex and require professional computer types ArcSDE = Spatial Database Engine

  11. How do they look • In ArcCatalog • In Windows Explorer

  12. Catalog View WE view Views of GDB

  13. WE view Catalog View Views of GDB

  14. Advantages of GDBs • Can be moved as one piece of data regardless of how much stuff is in it or where it is! • Faster (particularly for File GDBs) • Can use between layer topology for FC in a FDS • Can actually get into the Personal GBD Access database and mess with it (but you had better know what you are doing!)

  15. Advantages of GDBs • TOPOLOGY? = the arrangement that defines how point, line, and polygon features share coincident geometry. • examples, • Fire hydrants must fall on water mains, • Adjacent soil polygons must share their common boundaries. • Can be moved as one piece of data regardless of how much stuff is in it or where it is! • Faster (particularly for File GDBs) • Can use between layer topology for FC in a FDS • Can actually get into the Personal GBD Access database and mess with it (but you had better know what you are doing!)

  16. Feature Classes Stand alone Feature Classes Geodatabase Feature Dataset Source View

  17. } Cover Line(arc) poly Anno Table point ArcCatalog view Display view

  18. } Cover These are in a FDS and thus valves can be snapped (must be actually) to pipes ArcCatalog view Display view

  19. More yet: Feature Class (FC) • Conceptual representation of a category of geographic features. • Includes point, line, poly & annotation • When shapefiles are added to a GDB their computer representation is changed • This is why you cannot drag and drop a shapefile into a GDB. • You have to load it or Import it.

  20. Feature Dataset (FDS) • A collection of feature classes that share the same spatial reference. • It is because they share the same spatial reference that they can participate in topological relationships with each other. • Several feature classes with the same geometry may be stored in the same feature dataset. • Object geometry and relationship classes can also be stored in a feature dataset

  21. There are new icons in a GDB

  22. Icons GDB Feature Dataset GDB table

  23. Icons GDB Feature Dataset GDB table

  24. Icons GDB Feature Dataset GDB table

  25. Annotation

  26. Vector data: Network

  27. Table Field Properties • When creating a Feature Class or table you can specify the number of fields to be included • And you can spec settings such as field type and max. size • All fields have property default values, domains, aliases, and null allowance

  28. Topologies • Many datasets have features that could share boundaries or corners • By creating a Topology you set up rules defining how features share their geometries. • Editing a boundary or vertex shared by two or more features updates the shape of all of them.

  29. Topology rules • Govern the relationships between between features within a FC or features in different FCs • Example: moving a slope boundary in in one FC could update two slope class polys AND update a forest stand boundary in another FC. • Topology editing tools in ArcMap are used to create and change the rules

  30. Geometric Networks • Some vector datasets need to support connectivity tracing and network connectivity rules • Communications • Pipelines • Transportation (roads, railroads, canals) • Geometric networks allow you to turn simple point and line features into networkedge and junction features

  31. Summary of data types

  32. Summary of data types

  33. Creating a GDB • In ArcCatalog! • Point to where you want to put the new GDB • Click New>Personal GDB • Type in a new name

  34. Adding data • In Catalog… Right click and select New • You get

  35. Copying data • You can copy/paste data between GDBs • OR • You can import shapefiles, coverages, computer-aided drafting (CAD) data, and GeoDatabase FCs into a GDB

  36. Importing shapefiles • feature class that's in another coordinate system. • You MUST project to the spatial definition of the GDB • Then right click on GDB and select Import --------- 

  37. Planning • What is the problem? • What data is needed (scale, extent, etc.0? • What kinds of relationships are needed between FC? • How will the data be organized (FDS)?

  38. SUMMARY • The new GDB structure is much improved • Easier to use • 3 kinds • Drop and drag between GDBs • Extent does not have to be defined before creating

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