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  1. PART - I HEART DISEASE HEART ATTACK!!! AND Source : (Note :All the images and text copied from the above website with no change whatsoever) COMPILED and CONVERTED INTO “PPS” file format by:- 10th November,2010.

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  4. Arteriogram of healthy heart 1.What Is Heart Disease? Bring up heart disease, and most people think of a heart attack. But there are many conditions that can undermine the heart's ability to do its job. These include coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Keep reading to find out what these disorders do to the body and how to recognize the warning signs. Compiled by:

  5. ILLUSTRATION OF HEART ATTACK 2.What Is a Heart Attack? Every year more than 1 million Americans have a heart attack – a sudden interruption in the heart’s blood supply. This happens when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries, the vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle. When blood flow is blocked, heart muscle can be damaged very quickly and die. Prompt emergency treatments have reduced the number of deaths from heart attack in recent years. Source : Compiled by:

  6. Man holding heart 3.Heart Attack Symptoms A heart attack is an emergency even when symptoms are mild. Warning signs include :- =Pain or pressure in the chest. =Discomfort spreading to the back, jaw, throat, or arm. =Nausea, indigestion, or heartburn. =Weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath. =Rapid or irregular heartbeats Source :

  7. Woman jogging on path 4.Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Women don't always feel chest pain with a heart attack. Women are more likely than men to have heartburn, loss of appetite, tiredness or weakness, coughing, and heart flutters. These symptoms should not be ignored. The longer you postpone treatment, the more damage the heart may sustain. Source : Compiled by:

  8. Myocardial infarction 5.Signs of Coronary Artery Disease Aprecursor to a heart attack, coronary artery disease or CAD occurs when  sticky plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. This narrows the arteries, making it more difficult for blood to flow through. Many people don't know they have CAD until a heart attack strikes. But there are warning signs, such as recurring chest pain caused by the restricted blood flow. This pain is known as angina. Source : Compiled by:

  9. ILLUSTRATION OF PLAQUE BUILD UP IN ARTERY 6.Inside a Heart Attack The plaque deposited in your arteries is hard on the outside and soft and mushy on the inside. Sometimes the hard outer shell cracks. When this happens, a blood clot forms around the plaque. If the clot completely blocks the artery, it cuts off the blood supply to a portion of the heart. Without immediate treatment, that part of the heart muscle could be damaged or destroyed. Source : Compiled by:

  10. Ambulance 7.Don't Wait to Be Sure The best time to treat a heart attack is as soon as symptoms begin. Waiting to be sure can result in permanent heart damage or even death. If you think you may be having a heart attack, call 911. And don't try driving yourself to the hospital. When you call 911, the EMS staff can start emergency care as soon as they reach you. (“911” is for USA. Residents other than USA to follow their local procedure, in order reach the Hospital in barest minimum time.) Source : Compiled by:

  11. Defibrillator 8.Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for half of all heart disease deaths in the U.S., but it's not the same as a heart attack. SCD occurs when the heart's electrical system goes haywire, causing it to beat irregularly and dangerously fast. The heart's pumping chambers may quiver instead of pumping blood out to the body. Without CPR and restoration of a regular heart rhythm, death can occur in minutes. Source : Compiled by:

  12. ILLUSTRATION OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION 9.Arrhythmia: Erratic Heart Beat Regular electrical impulses cause your heart to beat. But sometimes those impulses become erratic. The heart may race, slow down, or quiver. Arrhythmias are often harmless variations in rhythm that pass quickly. But some types make your heart less effective at pumping blood, and that can take a serious toll on the body. Let your doctor know if you've noticed your heart beating abnormally. Source : Compiled by:

  13. ILLUSTRATION OF CARDIOMYOPATHY 10.Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy is a disease involving changes in the heart muscle. These changes may interfere with the heart’s ability to pump effectively, which can lead to a chronic condition called heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is sometimes associated with other chronic conditions, such as high blood pressure or heart valve disease. Source : Compiled by:

  14. Ultra sound of ventricular hypertrophy 11.Heart Failure Heart failure doesn't mean your heart stops working. It means the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Over time, the heart gets bigger to hold more blood, it pumps faster to increase the amount of blood moving out of it, and the blood vessels narrow. The  heart muscle may also weaken, reducing the blood supply even more. Most cases of heart failure are the result of coronary artery disease and heart attacks. Source : Compiled by:

  15. New born baby in incubator 12.Congenital Heart Defect A congenital heart defect is one that's present at birth. The problem could be a leaky heart valve, malformations in the walls that separate the heart chambers, or other heart problems. Some defects are not found until a person becomes an adult. Some need no treatment. Others require medicine or surgery. People with congenital heart defects may have a higher risk of developing complications such as arrhythmias, heart failure, and heart valve. Source : Compiled by:

  16. EKG Electrode 13.Testing: Electrocardiogram (EKG) An EKG (also ECG) is a painless test that uses electrodes placed on the skin to record the heart's electrical activity. The test provides information about your heart rhythm and damage to the heart muscle. An EKG can help your doctor diagnose a heart attack and evaluate abnormalities such as an enlarged heart. The results can be compared to future EKGs to track changes in the condition of your heart. Source : Compiled

  17. Heart stress test 14. Stress Test The stress test measures how your heart responds to exertion. If you have an exercise stress test, you'll either walk on a treadmill or ride a stationary bike while the level of difficulty increases. At the same time, your EKG, heart rate, and blood pressure will be monitored as your heart works harder. Doctors use a stress test to evaluate whether there is an adequate supply of blood to the heart muscle. Source : Compiled

  18. Portable Heart Monitor 15.Testing: Holter Monitor A Holter monitor is a portable heart rhythm recorder. If your doctor suspects a heart rhythm problem, she may ask you to wear one for 1 or 2 days. It  records the heart's continuous electrical activity day and night, compared with an EKG, which is a snapshot in time. The doctor will probably also ask you to keep a log of your activities and to note any symptoms and when they occur. Source : Compiled

  19. Xray of enlarged heart 16.Testing: Chest X-ray A chest X-ray is a picture of your heart, lungs, and chest bones that's made by using a very small amount radiation. Chest X-rays can be used to look for heart and lung abnormalities. In this image, the bulge seen on the right side is an enlarged left ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber. Source : Compiled by:

  20. Man having echocardiogram 17.Testing: Echocardiogram An echocardiogram uses sound waves (ultrasound) to generate moving images of the heart. The test can assess the chambers and valves of your heart and how well your heart muscle and heart valves are working. It's useful in diagnosing and evaluating several types of heart disease, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of treatments. Source : Compiled by:

  21. CT scan of heart 18.Testing: Cardiac CT Cardiac computerized tomography (known as cardiac CT) takes detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. A computer stacks the images to create a 3-D picture of heart. A cardiac CT can be used to look for plaque or calcium buildup in the coronary arteries, heart valve problems, and other types of heart disease. Source : Compiled by:

  22. Cardiac catheterization 19.Testing: Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization helps diagnose and treat some heart conditions.  The doctor guides a narrow tube, called a catheter, through a blood vessel in your arm or leg until it reaches the coronary arteries. Dye is injected into each coronary artery, making them easy to see with an X-ray. This reveals the extent and severity of any blockages. Treatments such as angioplasty or stenting can be done during this procedure. Source : Compiled

  23. Swollen ankle 20. Living With Heart Disease Most forms of heart disease are chronic. In the beginning, symptoms may be too mild to affect everyday life. And in many cases, long-term treatment can keep symptoms under control. But if the heart begins to fail, patients may develop shortness of breath, fatigue, or swelling in ankles, feet, legs, and abdomen. Heart failure can be managed with medication, lifestyle changes, surgery, and in certain cases, a heart transplant. Source : Compiled

  24. Pill organize 21.Treatment: Medicines Medications play a huge role in treating heart disease. Some drugs help lower blood pressure, heart rate, and cholesterol levels.  Others can keep abnormal heart rhythms under control or prevent clotting. For patients who already have some heart damage, there are medications to improve the pumping ability of an injured heart. Source : Compiled

  25. Angioplasty 22.Treatment: Angioplasty Angioplasty is used to open a blocked heart artery and improve blood flow to the heart. The doctor inserts a thin catheter with a balloon on the end into the artery. When the balloon reaches the blockage, it is expanded, opening up the artery and improving blood flow. The doctor may also insert a small mesh tube, called a stent, to help keep the artery open after angioplasty. Source : Compiled

  26. Heart surgery 23.Treatment: Bypass Surgery Bypass surgery is another way to improve the heart's blood flow. It gives blood a new pathway when the coronary arteries have become too narrow or blocked. During the surgery, a blood vessel is first moved from one area of the body -- such as the chest, legs, or arms -- and attached to the blocked artery, allowing it to bypass the blocked part. Source : Compiled

  27. Over-weight couple on beach 24.Who's at Risk for Heart Disease? Men have a higher risk of having a heart attack than women, and at an earlier age. But it's important to note that heart disease is the No. 1 killer of women, too. People with a family history of heart ailments also have a higher risk of heart trouble. Source : Compiled

  28. Healthy mature man 25.Risk Factors You Can Control High cholesterol and high blood pressure are major risk factors for heart disease. Being overweight, obese, or physically inactive all increase your risk. So does diabetes, especially if your glucose levels are not well controlled. Discuss your risks with your doctor and develop a strategy for managing them. There are many steps you can take to protect your heart. Source : Compiled

  29. Cigarette ash 26. Smoking and Your Heart If you smoke, your risk of heart disease is 2 to 4 times greater than a nonsmoker's. And if you smoke around loved ones, you're increasing their risk with secondhand smoke. Each year in the U.S., more than 135,000 people die from smoking-related heart disease. But it's never too late to quit. Within 24 hours of quitting, your heart attack risk begins to fall. Source : Compiled

  30. SENIOR LIFTING WEIGHT 27.Life After a Heart Attack It is possible to regain your health after a heart attack. By avoiding cigarettes, becoming more active, and watching what you eat, you can give your heart and overall health a big boost. One of the best ways to learn how to make these changes is to take part in a cardiac rehab program. Ask your doctor for recommendations. Source : Compiled

  31. WALKING ON TREADMILL 28.Heart Disease Prevention The key to preventing heart disease is a healthy lifestyle. This includes a nutritious diet, at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week, not smoking, and controlling high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation – no more than one drink a day for women, two drinks a day for men. Ask your friends and family for help in making these changes. They'll benefit, too. Source :

  32. HEALTHY FISH DISH 29.Diet and Your Heart What you eat makes a difference. Be sure you get plenty of whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits to help keep your heart healthy.  Plant oils, walnuts, other nuts, and seeds can also help improve cholesterol levels. And don't forget to eat fish at least a couple of times each week for a good source of heart-healthy protein. THE END OF PART I Source : Compiled

  33. PART-II 1.What Is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body and is made by the liver. Cholesterol is also present in foods we eat. People need cholesterol for the body to function normally. Cholesterol is present in the cell walls or membranes everywhere in the body, including the brain, nerves, muscles, skin, liver, intestines, and heart. 2) Why Should I Be Concerned About Cholesterol? Too much cholesterol in your body means that you have an increased risk of getting cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease. If you have too much cholesterol in your body, the cholesterol can build up on the walls of the arteries that carry blood to your heart. This buildup, which occurs over time, causes less blood and oxygen to get to your heart. This can cause chest pain and heart attacks. 3) What's the Difference Between "Good" and "Bad" Cholesterol? HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol is known as good cholesterol. HDL takes the bad cholesterol out of your blood and keeps it from building up in your arteries. LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol is known as bad cholesterol because it can build up on the walls of your arteries and increase your chances of getting cardiovascular disease. When being tested for high cholesterol, you want a high HDL number and a low LDL number. Source :

  34. 4) How Much Cholesterol Is Too Much? Doctors recommend your cholesterol stay below 200. Here is the breakdown: Source :

  35. HDL (good) cholesterol protects against heart disease, so for HDL, higher numbers are better. A level less than 40 is low and is considered a major risk factor because it increases your risk for developing heart disease. HDL levels of 60 or more help to lower your risk for heart disease. Triglyceride levels that are borderline high (150-199) or high (200 or more) may require treatment in some people. 5) Can I Lower My Risk for Heart Disease If I Lower My Cholesterol? Your risk for heart disease is lower when you have low total cholesterol and low LDL. Remember, a higher HDL number is better, however. 6) What Makes My Cholesterol Levels Go Up? Eating foods such as meats, whole milk dairy products, egg yolks, and some kinds of fish can make your cholesterol levels go up. Being overweight can make your bad cholesterol go up and your good cholesterol go down. Also, after women go through menopause, their bad cholesterol levels tend to go up. Source : Compiled

  36. 7) What Can I Do To Lower My Cholesterol Levels? • You can lower your cholesterol levels by making changes to your lifestyle. Here are some tips. • *Eat foods with less fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. • *Take off the skin and fat from meat, poultry, and fish. • *Broil, bake, roast, or poach instead of frying foods. • *Eat lots of fruits and vegetables everyday. • *Eat lots of cereals, breads, rice, and pasta made from whole grains, such as whole wheat bread or spaghetti. • *Get lots of exercise everyday. Talk to your doctor about what are the safest and best ways for you to exercise. • *Lose weight if you are overweight. • *Stop smoking. • *Take your high blood cholesterol medication as prescribed by your doctor. Source : Compiled

  37. 8.What drugs are used to treat high cholesterol? • Cholesterol lowering drugs include: • Statins c)Bile-acid resins • Niacin d)Fibric acid deriavatives • Cholesterol-lowering drug is most effective when combined with a low-cholesterol diet. 9) If a Product's Package Reads "Low Cholesterol," Does That Mean It's Low in Fat? Not necessarily. Numerous foods marked "low cholesterol" can contain oils that may be high in saturated fats, which are not considered healthy. In addition, unsaturated fats like vegetable oil also can be high in calories. The total amount of fat in your diet should be kept to about 20% to 30% of your daily intake. Source : Compiled

  38. 10) At What Age Should People Begin Having Their Cholesterol Checked? It is important to have your cholesterol level checked when you are young, since clogging of the arteries (atherosclerosis) is a gradual process that takes many years. Total cholesterol should be measured at least every five years starting at age 20. Note: If you have high cholesterol and your doctor has told you there may be an underlying genetic cause, you may want to have your children, under age 20, get their cholesterol levels tested. Talk to your children's health care providers about cholesterol testing. THE END Source : Compiled