MLA Citation Krista Hoeksema Adapted 2011
There are two parts to MLA citation… • Parenthetical or in-text citations • Works Cited page But first things first…
Why use MLA citation? • To give credit to your source • To help locate the original documents • To give your writing credibility • To avoid plagiarism
What is plagiarism? Using any information that is not common knowledge from any source and not giving proper credit through citation. You must cite ideas or words that are not your own or face failure of the assignment or possibly expulsion.
What needs to be cited in-text? • Direct quotations • Paraphrases
Direct quotes If more than 20 percent of your paper is quotes, which is someone’s exact words, then that’s too much! You want your paper to contain your writing. Too many quotes in a paper take away from the writer’s voice.
Proper citation for a direct quote in your text: Example: “Jane Doe spent most of her life as a recluse in her home, but she occasionally ventured out to parties where she let her hair down and danced on tables” (Boltjes 259) . Author’s Last Name Page number
Citing a direct quote using a signal phrase that mentions the author in the paper: Signal phrase Author According to Boltjes, Doe “spent most of her life as a recluse in her home, but she occasionally ventured out to parties where she let her hair down and danced on tables” (259). Page number* *NOTE: When the author is mentioned, you do not need to include the last name within the parentheses at the end of the quote. The page number is enough.
For direct quotes that are longer than four lines, you will want to set the quote off from the rest of your paper with a block quote.
At the end of “The Tell-Tale Heart”, the narrator’s calm facade steadily disintegrates: The officers were satisfied. My MANNER had convinced them. I was singularly at ease. They sat and while I answered cheerily, they chatted of familiar things. But, ere long, I felt myself getting pale and wished them gone. My head ached, and I fancied a ringing in my ears; but still they sat, and still chatted. The ringing became more distinct: I talked more freely to get rid of the feeling: but it continued and gained definitiveness -- until, at length, I found that the noise was NOT within my ears. (Poe 247) Double Space 1” Margin Punctuation Author Page Number
Paraphrases Most of your paper will be made up of paraphrases… Paraphrasing is another way of handling quotations. When paraphrasing, the writer relays the meaning in her own words.
An Example of Paraphrasing Original quote: “Jane Doe spent most of her life as a recluse in her home, but she occasionally ventured out to parties where she let her hair down and danced on tables” (Boltjes 259). Paraphrase: Although Jane Doe didn’t leave the house much, she did like to party every once in awhile (Boltjes 259).
Why is that a good paraphrase? While it conveys the meaning of the quote, it is not too close to the author’s original words (wording and sentence structure is changed as much as possible), and it is cited correctly.
Tips for Paraphrasing • Read the passage and make sure you understand its meaning. • Think about how the passage relates to your paper. • Turn the paper over and write the main idea in your own words on a note card (for more information on using note cards for you research paper, see the Writing Center’s handout on note taking). • Reread the quote making sure that you have not kept the same structure or merely changed a few words .
Citing In-text Without a Page Number If you don’t have a page number for your source (as in an internet source), you may use either the paragraph number (Lewis par. 5) or section name (Brooks “Introduction”) in place of page numbers.
Citing In-text Without an Author If your source does not have an author, you will then cite the title (shortened if necessary) of the book, article , or story in-text along with the page number or section name. Example: (“Traveling” par.19)
What is a Works Cited page? A list of all sources that are referenced in your essay. It contains all the information that your reader needs to locate the sources cited in your essay.
Now what will your Works Cited page look like? Works Cited Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. Print. Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.
Things to remember when making your Works Cited page • Center the words Works Cited-do not underline them-on a new page of your paper • Double space • Alphabetize all of your citations, even if your listing starts with a title • Start each new citation at the left margin; indent 5 spaces or a half inch for each subsequent line of an entry
Missing source information? MLA now requires the following abbreviations to replace missing information: • n.p.: No place of publication or No publisher given • n.d. :No date of publication • n. pag. : No pagination given NOTE: The initial Nin all of the abbreviations is capitalized if it follows a period, lowercase if it follows a comma or colon
The following slides will show examples of Works Cited entries based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
Basic Book Entry Format Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Publication Medium. Book with one author [5.5.2] : Example: Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying. New York: Random, 1964. Print. Book with two or more authors [5.5.4]: Example: Anderson, Jack, and Bill Pronzine. The Cambodia File. New York: Doubleday, 1981. Print.
Two or More Works by the Same Author: NOTE: The name of the author will only appear in the first entry. In the rest of the entries by that author, three hyphens will replace the author’s name. Example: King, Stephen. Dolores Claiborne. New York: Viking, 1993. Print. ---. The Shining. New York: Doubleday, 1977. Print.
A Work in an Anthology [5.5.6]: Author of Story. “Title of Story.” Title of Book. Name of Editor. Edition (if given). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page numbers of work. Publication Medium. Example: Poe, Edgar Allen. “The Black Cat.” Literature: Approaches to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Robert DiYanni. New York: McGraw, 2004. 130-135. Print.
Encyclopedia and Reference Book Article [5.5.7]: Author of Article (if given). “Article Title.” Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Publication Medium. Example: Springer, Marlene. “Edith Newbold James Wharton.” American Women Writers from Colonial Times to the Present. Ed. LinaMainiero. 5 vols. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1982. Print. *NOTE: For a specific definition among several, use abbreviation Def. and number/letter, e.g. Def. 2c, after entry title
Scholarly Journal Article [5.4.2] Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Volume Number. Issue Number (Year of Publication): Page(s). Publication Medium. Example: Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. Print.
Government Publication [5.5.20] (If author is not known): Name of Government. Name of Agency. Title of Publication. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Publication Medium. Example: Michigan State. Department of Consumer & Industry. Unemployment Agency 1999 Annual Report. Lansing: State of Michigan, 2000. Print.
Magazine Articles: [5.4.6] Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Page(s). Publication Medium. Example: Saporito, Bill. “The e-Health Revolution.” Time 27 June 2005: 55-57. Print. *NOTE: Volume and issue numbers are omitted for magazines even if listed.
Newspaper Articles: [5.4.5] Author. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper [City] Day Month Year, edition: Page(s). Publication Medium. Example: Royse, David. “Dennis a Menace but not an Ivan.” Kalamazoo Gazette 11 July 2005: A3. Print. • Omit any articles, such as The, in newspaper titles-except international newspapers (Le Monde) • If name of city is in the paper’s or the paper is nationally published (e.g. Wall Street Journal), omit city name • Volume and issue numbers are not listed
Internet Sources A URL is no longer required for internet sources as they often change and can be very long. When to include the URL… • If your reader will have trouble finding your article through search engines alone • If your instructor requires it
Work Cited Only on the Web (Nonperiodicals) [5.6.2]: Author. "Title of Work." Title of Web Site. Version or Edition Used. Publisher or Sponsor of Site, Day Month Year of Publication. Publication Medium. Day Month Year of Access. Example: Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008. *NOTE: Italicize Title of Work if independent, use quotation marks if part of a larger work.
Work Cited On the Web with Print Publication Data [5.6.2]: • Follow print publication guidelines • In place of original medium of publication, add the following: • Title of database or Web site (italicized) • Medium of publication consulted (Web) • Date of access (day, month, and year) *See next slide for one example
Work Cited On the Web with Print Publication Data [5.6.2] Example (Based on a Book): Bierce, Ambrose. “Academy.” The Devil’s Dictionary. The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce. Vol. 7. New York: Neale, 1911. N. pag. The Ambrose Bierce Project. Web. 15 May 2008. NOTE: Your citation may vary according to the original print publication your work is based upon.
Scholarly Journal Published Exclusively on the Web [5.6.3] Author(s). “Title of Article.” Name of Periodical Volume Number. Issue Number (Year): Page Numbers. Medium of Publication. Day Month Year of Access. Shah, ParilahMohd, and Fauziah Ahmad. “A Comparitive Account of the Bilingual Education Programs in Malaysia and the United States.” GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies 7.2 (2007): 63-77. Web. 5 June 2008.
Periodical Publications in anOnline Database Follow requirements for the print publication (See slides 9, 10, and 11), then add the following in place of original medium of publication: • Title of database(italicized) • Medium of publication consulted (Web) • Date of access (day, month, and year) *See next slide for example
Periodical Publications in anOnline Database [5.6.4] Author. “Title of Article.” Name of Periodical Day Month Year: Page(s). Title of Database. Publication Medium. Day Month Year of Access. Example (Magazine Article on Database): Wallis, Claudia. “Crisis? I’ll Take Mine to Go.” Time 16 May 2005: N. pag. ProQuest. Web. 27 June 2011. NOTE: Your citation may vary according to the original print publication your work is based upon.
Works Cited Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2004. Print. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.