American History Chapter 27-1 Kennedy & the Cold War
Election of 1960 • Dem. John F. Kennedy v. Rep. Richard M. Nixon • Kennedy expressed a spirit of hope & change. • Kennedy had “movie star good looks.” • Kennedy emphasized a “new frontier.” • In 1960 John F. Kennedy became the youngest person & the 1st Catholic to be elected president. Nixon JFK
Cold War Issues • Fidel Castro gained power in Cuba in 1959. • Seized American businesses in Cuba. • Made anti-American speeches & a trade agreement with the Soviets. • The CIA trained 1500 Cuban exiles to return & lead a revolt to overthrow Castro. • President Kennedy ordered the Bay of Pigs invasion. • It was a disaster & an embarrassment for the U.S. • The Communist dictator, Fidel Castro, developed strong relations with the Soviets for protection.
Cold War Issues Continued • Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev put pressure on Kennedy after the Bay of Pigs failure. • Demanded that East Germany be recognized as an independent nation. • Kennedy responded with a troop buildup in West Germany. • Aug. 1961, Khrushchev ordered the building of the Berlin Wall. • Purpose was to keep East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin. Khrushchev
More Trouble • Cuban Missile Crisis: October, 1962 • Bay of Pigs invasion & Berlin crisis caused the Soviets to be more aggressive. • Khrushchev believed the U.S. may invade Cuba. • U.S. had nuclear missiles in Turkey. • The Soviets installed SAMs & nuclear missiles in Cuba. • U.S. spy-flights detected the weapons. • Kennedy demands removal of the Soviet missiles. • Orders a naval blockade of Cuba. • 550 U.S., nuclear armed, bombers takeoff. • 100,000 U.S. troops assemble in Ga.
War Averted • Compromise: The Soviets remove the Cuban missiles & the U.S. removes the Turkey missiles & promises never to invade Cuba. • Effects of the Crisis: • Kennedy & Khrushchev took steps ease tensions between the 2 countries. • Set up a “hot line,” direct communication between the two leaders. • Signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: • No testing of nuclear weapons in the air or in the water.
Kennedy’s Foreign Policy • Peace Corps: Most successful policy. • Trained volunteers were sent to underdeveloped areas to educate, provide health care, & provide agricultural advice. • Alliance for Progress: • Provided financial aid to build schools, housing, roads, hospitals, & power plants in Latin America. • Flexible Response: • Strengthened traditional U.S. forces to provide options other than nuclear weapons.