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The need for harvest control rules

The need for harvest control rules

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The need for harvest control rules

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  1. The need for harvest control rules Workshop on Harvest Control Rules for Sustainable Fisheries Management13-15 September 2004 Institute of Marine Research Maren Aschehoug Esmark WWF-Norway

  2. WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature 5 million member globally (5.000 in Norway) Conservation programs and projects in 100 countries Marine conservation is high priority WWF in Norway works with protecting marine biodiversity by establishing marine protected areas and working to reduce the threat from shipping, oil & gas, aquaculture and fisheries. The WWF office in Oslo hosts the WWF Arctic Program and the Barents Sea Ecoregion Program. Funding from members, industry and government. (mainly from NORAD to WWF projects in Eastern Africa) The need for harvest control rules Sept 13th 2004

  3. Fisheries in crisis...? “The majority of the world’s fish stocks are exposed to intensive fishing, and it is estimated that 75 percent of known, global fish populations are fully exploited, overexploited, or severely depleted” (FAO 2002) “A recent study estimates that the remaining biomass of the oceans large predatory fishes, that includes cod, is only about 10% of pre-industrial levels” (Myers & Worm 2003) ”Most commercial fish stocks of the North Sea, especially those landed for human consumption, are heavily exploited and the fishery lands mainly juvenile fish” (IMM-97, CONSSO) The need for harvest control rules Sept 13th 2004

  4. Lack of trust in fisheries management The public opinion sees fisheries as: • Illegal fishing activities, cheating, IUU • Collapsing fish stocks, demolished coral reefs, bycatch, discards etc. • Secret and closed management Result = Lack of trust which leads to • Reduced political support • Difficult to get support for neccecary management regulations • Effects in the markeds

  5. Total global catch of Atlantic cod was in 1970 around 3.1 million tons. In 2002, total catch was down to 890.000 tons, a reduction of more than 70 %. (FAO Fishstats 2004) Declining cod stocks Global cod stocks have declined by 70 % last 30 years. If such trend continues, there will be no more cod on the marked in 15 years..

  6. Norwegian coastal cod in strong decline ICES recommended “full stop” in fishing New management plan fails to rebuild the stock Nordisk idéverksted, Finnøy 24 mai 2004

  7. Blue Whiting...

  8. “Seal fishing” Quotas are not in line with scientific recomendations.. IMR advice for 2004: - 368 greyseals - 511 common seals

  9. Better management is needed..

  10. Over capacity... It has been a political aim for years in Norway to reduce total fishing capacity in order to have a fishing fleet actually matching the fishing resources. However, the recent report from the Auditor General (Riksrevisjonen 2004) concludes that total technical trawler capacity has increased by 72 per cent from 1990 to 2002 and the conventional fleet has increased its technical capacity by 30 per cent in the same period.

  11. Discards In May 2004, the Norwegian “discard commission” published a report on how to deal with discards in Norwegian waters. The report gives some important recommendations, such as: Keeping the band on discard of commercial fish species Expanding the current system of closing areas with undersized fish. Increasing the use of inspectors at sea More control of fish vessels at sea More control when landing fish

  12. Illegal fishing and reloading In a report from the Norwegian fisheries directorate and the Norwegain Coastguard, Norwegian authorities have estimated the extent of over-fishing by Russian vessels in  he Barents Sea in 2002 and 2003. The report, which was released in the beginning of August, states that Russia has over-fished the fishing quota by between 130 and 215 thousand tonnes in the period 2002 and 2003. According to the report these are conservative estimates, real figures could be higher. For 2002 Russia had a quota of 190 000 tonnnes, but fished between 260 000 and 300 000 tonnes. For 2003 the quota was 190 000 tonnes, but the estimated catch was between 250 000 and 305 000 tonnes

  13. Year Recomended Max Quota Agreed Quota Difference in Tons Difference in % 1998 514 000 654 000 140 000 27 1999 360 000 480 000 120 000 33 2000 110 000 390 000 280 000 255 2001 263 000 395 000 132 000 50 2002 181 000 395 000 214 000 118 2003 305 000 395 000 90 000 30 TACs and agreed quotas The table shows that the agreed quota has been considerably higher than recommended for several years. In 2000 it was as much as 255% higher. (Riksrevisjonen 2004)

  14. Why do we need harvest control rules?

  15. ”Dersom tobisfisket stanses vil vi fiske mer kolmule!” ”Hvorfor trenger økosystemet en stor bestand av uer?” ”Send bombefly til vestisen – da vil torskebestanden vokse” ”Utkastkommisjonen var nedsatt for å sverte norsk fiskerinæring”

  16. There are three persons in the Norwegian Parliament with an interest and some knowledge of fisheries According to the UN – overfishing is one of the top global problems with very little attention

  17. ”Miljøorganisasjonene har kostet oss millioner av kroner i tapt fortjeneste fordi kvotene er blitt satt for lavt”

  18. CBD 1992 Biological diversity - means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Sustainable use - the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

  19. ”The Ecosystem approach” originated from CBD The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The ecosystem approach requires adaptive management to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of ecosystems and the absence of complete knowledge or understanding of their functioning. The Malawi principles

  20. Rio + 10 in Johannesburg WSSD Johannesburg Decleration: “Encourage the application by 2010 of the ecosystem approach, noting the Reykjavik Declaration on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem and decision 5/6 of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity” In Norway, St.meld.nr 12 2001 - 2002 Havmiljømeldingen: Økosystemtilnærming til havforvaltning er en integrert forvaltning av menneskelige aktiviteter basert på økosystemenes dynamikk. Målsetningen er å oppnå bærekraftig bruk av ressurser og goder fra økosystemene og opprettholde deres struktur, virkemåte og produktivitet

  21. Fisheries – taking the lead in ”operating” the precautionary principle UN Fish Stocks Agreement on straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks (2001) - a consensus on the need to use the precautionary principle in fisheries management, also introducing the concept of ecosystembased management. FAO code of conduct for Responsible Fisheries (1995) States should apply the precautionary approach widely to conservation, management and exploitation of living aquatic resources in order to protect them and preserve the aquatic environment. The absence of adequate scientific information should not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures.

  22. UNCLOS The Convention provides coastal states sovereign rights over resources out to 200 miles and provides the authority to conserve and exploit living resources within that jurisdiction. The Convention requires that coastal nations ensure, using the best scientific information available and conservation and management measures, that the living resources of the exclusive economic zone are not threatened by overexploitation. Maximum sustainable yield as the goal for maintaining or restoring exploited populations.

  23. UN fish stock agreement -One of the most important environmental agreements ever...? Represents a total shift in international fishery management. For the first time, focus is shifted from producing maximum food for humans, to sustainable fishing, ecosystem protection, conservation of biological diversity and the use of a precautionary approach to fisheries management. The Agreement developed a consensus on the need to use the precautionary principle in fisheries management, also introducing the concept of ecosystem-based management. The Agreement outlines an actual methodology for the precautionary approach, by establishing reference points, targets and limits.

  24. UN fish stock agreement Important principles stated in the UN agreement are: The absence of adequate scientific information shall not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures. The parties must assess the impacts of fishing, other human activities and environmental factors on target stocks and species belonging to the same ecosystem or dependent upon or associated with the target stocks Develop data collection and research programmes to assess the impact of fishing on non-target and associated or dependent species and their environment, and adopt plans that are necessary to ensure the conservation of such species and to protect habitats of special concern.

  25. EBM Complete change in management focus • Human activities affects ecosystems • We dont manage single species, but entire ecosystems • Objective is to maintain the ecosystem functionsand integrety

  26. Traditional fisheries management only regulates the relationship between vessel/fishing boat and the target species.

  27. Future fisheries management will regulate the fisheries relationship with the whole ecosystem and all factors impacting the ecosystem.

  28. Other factors impacting on marine resources: Natural climate change/fluctuations Pollution from landbased installments Eutrophication Airborne pollution Human caused climate change Nuclear threat Diseases Other nations management regimes Global energy situation

  29. Ecosystembased Fisheries Management Focus on maintaining the natural structure, functions and productivity of ecosystems; Incorporate human use and values of ecosystems in managing the resource; Recognize that ecosystems are dynamic and constantly changing; Are based on the shared vision of all stakeholders; Are based on scientific knowledge, adapted by continual learning and monitoring.

  30. EBFM is not/does not: …. Exist without political will and vision …. Exists outside society and culture …. A multi-species approach to managment …. To only focus on ecosystems impact on fisheries …. To only focus on establishing protected areas …. Without considering external impacts …. To only focus on rehabilitation …. Exists without participation from all stakeholders

  31. Ecosystembased Fisheries Management Management operates within a policy framework designed to facilitate and enable effective implementation of all the principles of EBM. Recognition of economic, social and cultural interests as factors that may affect resource management objectives, targets, strategies and activities Ecological values are recognized and incorporated into the management system through development of agreed objectives, targets, strategies and activities that reflect the risk of impacts of the resource exploitation. Information on exploited species is adequate to ensure that there is a low risk of over-harvesting, and population and genetic diversity are maintained The resource management system is adequate and appropriate to ensure that EBM can be effective and efficient within a precautionary approach Environmental externalities that may affect the resources, or that the resource exploitation systems may impact, are properly included within the resource management system

  32. Ecosystembased Fisheries Management My personal attempt to simplify: Be based on the precautionary approach Have clear goals and objectives Have indicators and plans for monitoring Have decision rules Totally open and transparent process that includes all stakeholders and allows and encourages public debate

  33. Transparent process with input from all stakeholders Transparency is crucial for trust Everyones knowledge should be heard Facts and information must be available:- What species?- In what condition?- What are the consequenses of the activity?- What are the risks? Public debate and encouraging input

  34. Precautionary principle – knowledge gaps There is much we dont know about the ecosystems functions and processes and how different activites will affect the ecosystem. However – we still need to make decisions on how to manage marine resources. Precautionary is to build resilience The burden of proof is with the fisheries industry, as it is with other industries. It is crucial that management gives room for mistakes – both in management and in stock estimates.

  35. Environmental Impact Assessmentof fisheries • Describe fishery • Ecosystem impacted • Sustainabillity • Target-species • Non-target species, bifangster • Ecosystem functions • Implemented in Australia, EPBC Act 1999. All fisheries are obliged to do an EIA before 2005.

  36. Questions to ask: Does the management have an overall goal and objective to maintain the ecosystem functions? Is the precautionary principle integrated?Is the management regime open and transparent? Is society, cultural and socio-economic needs included? Is an environmental impact assessment conducted? Is there a decision rule (HCR)?Does this allow natural fluctuations?Can the management regime shift according to new information?Were all stakeholders invited to give input?Is the management evaluated according to its objectives?

  37. Norwegian Arctic cod An experiment… Does the management have an overall goal and objective to maintain the ecosystem functions? Is the precautionary principle integrated?Is the management regime open and transparent? Is society, cultural and socio-economic needs included? Is an environmental impact assessment conducted? Is there a decision rule (HCR)?Does this allow natural fluctuations?Can the management regime shift according to new information?Were all stakeholders invited to give input?Is the management evaluated according to its objectives?

  38. Ecolabels - The consumers power and contribution • Consumers pay more attention to issues of sustainabillity and are aware of differences in fisheries. • Lack of trust can affect the whole industry • Ecolabels gives the consumer a chance to choose fish from responsibly managed fisheries. • WWF and Unilever estblished the criteria for the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) i 1997. • MSC has been independent since 1999. • Full transparency in the certification process