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Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop June 22, 2011 San Rafael, California PowerPoint Presentation
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Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop June 22, 2011 San Rafael, California

Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop June 22, 2011 San Rafael, California

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Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop June 22, 2011 San Rafael, California

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  1. Troubled Waters: Biological Invasion of Our Aquatic Resources Aquatic Invasive Species Workshop June 22, 2011 San Rafael, California Ronald Smith United States Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Invasive Species Program Pacific Southwest Region

  2. Outline of the Presentation • Problem • Pathways • Examples of some invasive flora and fauna • New invaders of concern • What you can do

  3. Problem with Non-native Invasive Species • Economic cost to U.S. • Damage to infrastructure • Loss of resources • 2nd leading cause of native species’ extinction/endangerment • Loss of global biodiversity • Human health risk • Asian lung fluke • West Nile virus

  4. Pathways of IntroductionHow they get here… • Aquaria • Aquaculture • Ballast water • Intentional introduction • Live bait • Live seafood • Aquascaping

  5. Pathways of IntroductionHow they are spread once there are here… • Stowaways • Boats and equipment • Shipping crates • Recreational activities • Infrastructure maintenance • Field crews

  6. Examples of Invasive Aquatic Plants in California • Water Hyacinth • Hydrilla • Eurasian Watermilfoil • Giant Salvinia • Brazilian Elodea • Curly Leaf Pondweed • South American Sponge Plant

  7. Characteristics of Invasive Aquatic Plants • Form dense mats can clog entire lakes & waterways • Interferes with commercial and recreational water navigation • Displace and reduce the diversity of native aquatic plants • Supports a lower abundance and diversity of invertebrates • Less valuable food source for waterfowl • Clogs water diversions and pumps • Depletes dissolved oxygen levels • Increased sedimentation • Causes flooding

  8. Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) • Grows in all types of freshwater habitats • Vary in size from a few inches to over three feet tall • Showy lavender flowers • Leaves are rounded and leathery, attached to spongy inflated stalks • Dark feathery roots with end caps

  9. Hydrilla(Hydrillaverticillata) • Submersed plant, can grow to the surface and form dense mats • Stems are slender, branched and up to 25 feet long • Leaves are strap-like and pointed, grow in whorls of four to eight around the stem • Leaf margins are distinctly saw-toothed • Tiny white flowers on long stalks • Potato-like tubers attached to the roots in the mud

  10. Eurasian Watermilfoil(Myriophyllumspicatum) • Tolerates a wide range of water conditions and often forms large infestations • Stems are reddish-brown to whitish-pink; branched and commonly grow to lengths of six to nine feet • Leaves are deeply divided, soft and feather-like, about two inches long, and arranged in whorls of three to six leaves about the stem • Flowers are reddish and very small, held above the water on an immersed flower spike that is several inches long

  11. Giant salvinia(Salviniamolesta) • Looks like free floating fern; stems rootless, hairy, about 10 cm long • Leaves in threes, looks like two, rounded to somewhat broadly elliptical 2 cm long, upper surface with 4-pronged hairs joined at the tips (resembling an egg beater), lower surface hairy

  12. Brazilian Waterweed (Egeriadensa) • Submersed plant is rooted, occurs in streams, ponds, springs, and lakes • Stems are usually a foot or two long, but can be much longer • Leaves are strap-shaped, about one inch long, 1/4 inch wide and occur in whorls of three to six around the stem • Leaf margins have very fine saw teeth • Flowers are on short stalks about one inch above the water; have three white petals and are about 3/4 inch across

  13. Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogetoncrispus) • Stem is flat, reddish-brown and grows from 1 to 3 feet long • Leaves are reddish-green, oblong and about 3 inches long • Distinct wavy edges that are finely toothed • Flowers are reddish-white and emergent from a short stem

  14. New Invader: South American Spongeplant • Many seeds & small seedlings move easily. • Spongeplant mixed with duckweed. Red circles show spongeplant seedlings. • Seeds survive at least three years. • First California infestation in Redding and Arcata 2003. • Outcompetes several other aggressive water weeds, like water primrose and parrots feather.

  15. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu

  16. Examples of Invasive Fauna Species • Asian Clam • Chinese Mitten Crab • New Zealand Mudsnail • Florida Watersnake (Nerodia) • Northern Snakehead

  17. Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea) • Introduced in 1800’s for human consumption • High densities, out-competes native clams • Impairs water delivery systems by clogging pipes, valves and sprinklers • Traps sediment, forms bars in agriculture canals, alters flow • Possible cause for pelagic fish decline in the delta • Bioaccumulation of toxins • Control: • mechanical removal • chemicals

  18. Intentional releases for human consumption and/or via ballast water Clogs fish salvage facilities Creates losses for fisheries Threatens levee stability Potential host for human lung fluke Population cyclic, low at present Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

  19. New Zealand Mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) • From New Zealand • 750,000 NZMS per square meter • Competes for space and food • Ties up nutrients – not digestible by most fish or birds, shell takes a long time to decompose • Shells block pipes, filters and grates • Development of biocontrols underway Ken Davis Distribution of the New Zealand mudsnail in California.

  20. Southern Watersnake (Nerodia fasciata) • Native to southeastern US • Threat to CA native and federally listed giant garter snake (Thamnophisgigas) • Eradication efforts in SoCal

  21. Northern Snakehead(Channaargus) • Native to China, and possibly Korea and Russia • First discovered in MD in 2002 • Introduced as food source and through aquarium trade • Voracious predator – decimate native fish populations • Primitive lung – can breath air and move short distances over land • Some successful eradication efforts

  22. New Invaders to California • Zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha) • Quagga mussel (Dreissenabugensis)

  23. Zebra and Quagga Mussel

  24. What can you do… • Become aware of AIS and plan your activities accordingly • Develop and implement actions to prevent AIS introductions • Report all suspected sightings of AIS to 1-877-STOP-ANS • Take an active role and spread the word about AIS…

  25. Give us a call… (209) 946-6400 • Ronald Smith – AIS Program Coordinator • Jon Thompson – ISRAP/HACCP Coordinator • Louanne McMartin – Watershed Coordinator

  26. Questions