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EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04

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EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04

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  1. EAD 800 Day 2 Valbonne 04 • Systems Theory • Learning Organizations • hypotheses

  2. Systems Perspectives • Closed System • Open System • Rational System -Machine model -Structural view • Natural System -Human Relations -Human Resources

  3. Closed Systems • Schools sealed off from outside • Isolated • Environment not considered

  4. Open Systems • Influenced by environments • Dependent on environments • Inputs – Transformation – Outputs • Accommodates both rational and natural systems perspectives • Accommodates both formal and informal organizational perspectives

  5. Theorists who suggested this integration: • Chester Barnard (1938) • Structure – individual, cooperative system, formal organization, complex formal organization, informal organization • Dynamic concepts – free will, cooperation, communication, authority, decision process, dynamic equilibrium

  6. Theorists who suggested this integration: • Herbert Simon (1947) • Formal theory of motivation • Organization an exchange system – inducements exchanged for work • Organization limited in ability to collect and process information, search for alternatives, predict • Satisficing is decision making process

  7. Theorists who suggested this integration: • Max Weber (1947) • Mainly aligned with scientific managers • Starting point for idea of social systems – discussions of bureaucracy and authority

  8. Theorists who suggested this integration: • Talcott Parsons (1960) • Stressed importance of the environment on the organization • Anticipated conception of organization as an open system

  9. Hoy & Miskel’s Integration • Open Systems • Rational Systems • Natural Systems

  10. Rational Systems • The Machine Model - The beginning - Scientific Management and Administrative Management • The Structural Model - Contemporary View - Stress goal specificity and formalization

  11. Scientific Management • Frederick Taylor (1947) • Workers need constant direction - Motivated by economics - Limited by physiology - Human engineers: worked up from the individual worker - Time and motion studies

  12. Administrative Managers • Fayol (Urwick, 1937) and Gulick (1937) • POSDCoRB • Division of Labor (Specialization) • Span of Control • Principle of homogeneity (purpose, process, clientele, or location)

  13. Scientific Management in Schools • Campbell et al. (1987) – parallel to field of administration • Bobbit (1913) – job analyses, component tasks, efficiency • Callahan (1962) – “cult of efficiency” • Kanigel (1997) – Taylorism not a “fad” – living tissue of America

  14. Rational Systems: A Structural View • Behavior in organizations seen as purposeful, disciplined, and rational • Limitations of individual decision makers (authority, rules and regulations, compliance, coordination, opportunities, constraints)

  15. Clear Goals - direct decisions - influence structure - specify tasks - guide resource allocation - govern design - avoid ambiguity Formalization - rules and codes - standardization - regulation - governs behavior - visible structure - fact-based decisions - work separate from feelings Rational Systems

  16. Rational Systems • Seldon Wolin (1960) “ Organization, by simplifying and routinizing procedures, eliminates the need for surpassing talent. It is predicated on average human beings.”

  17. Criticism of Rational Systems • Rigid conception of organizations • Structure and function affected by environment • Undue emphasis on parts rather than the whole

  18. Natural Systems • Roots in Human Relations Movement - Mary Parker Follett (1924) Dynamic and harmonious relat. - Mayo & Roethlisberger (1939) Hawthorne studies – illumination and work efficiency

  19. Hawthorne Studies • Informal organization – worker behavior did not conform to official job specifications - Interaction patterns (cliques) - Informal norms - Behavior not a function of economic considerations

  20. Criticisms of Human Relations Perspective • Doesn’t take into account “conflicting values” • Not all one happy family • Concern for workers can be manipulative rather than genuine • Often manifest in a series of “prescriptions” about how things should be and how individuals should behave.

  21. Human Resources View • Organizations are social groups trying to adapt and survive their particular situations • Formal goals and structures often have little to do with what actually occurs in organizations • Survival and equilibrium override other goals

  22. Human Resources View • Organizations are vehicles for humans to satisfy their human needs • People are valuable resources for the organization • Informal organization emphasized over formal organization

  23. Human Resources View • Workers bring heads and hearts to work • Needs, beliefs, values and motivations • Generate informal norms, status structures, power relations, communication networks and working arrangements

  24. A bit more about Open Systems • Inputs – Transformation – Outputs • Feedback • Boundaries • Environment • Homeostasis (equilibrium/disequilibrium) • Entropy • Equifinality

  25. Elements of School Social System • Structure (bureaucratic expectation) • Individual (cognition & motivation) • Culture (shared orientations) • Politics (power relations) • Technical core (teaching and learning) • Environment p. 24

  26. Feedback • Internal feedback loops - formal structure - informal structure • External feedback loops - Community - Accountability indicators - State/national mandates (ESEA)

  27. Schools as Learning Organizations • Systems thinking • Participants expand capacities to create and achieve • Novel patterns of thinking are encouraged • Collective aspirations are nurtured • Participants learn to learn together • Organization increases problem solving capabilities (Senge, 1990; Watson & Marsick, 1993)

  28. Learning Organizations An organization in which the participants pursue common purposes with a collective commitment to routinely assessing the value of those purposes, modifying them when appropriate, and continually developing more effective and efficient ways to achieve those purposes. (Leithwood & Louis, 1998)

  29. Learning Organizations Long on rhetoric and theoretical analysis and short on research. Weick & Westley, 1996 Hoy & Miskel, 2000

  30. The Capacity for Organizational LearningLouis & Marks, 1999; Louis, Marks & Printy, 2000 • Simplified organizational structure • Participative decision making • Shared commitment and collaborative activity • Adequate knowledge and skills • Transformational leadership • Feedback and accountability

  31. Summary Pages • Rational Systems – pp. 13/14 • Natural Systems – pp. 17/18 • Schools as social systems – pp. 22-23

  32. Research questions and hypotheses • Research questions can guide research when the analyst does not have a clear indication of relationship – no prior research, for example. • Hypotheses guide research when a specific relationship has some empirical support. See p. 30.