Development of Progressivism • (1) Grange Movement • (Plains / South Farmers) • (2) Populist Party (Democrats) • Farmers & Labor Unions • (3) Progressive Movement • 1) Organizing Farmers Protest • The Grange Movement (regulations of RR’s) rates
Populist Party (People’s party) farmers & Labor Union Groups • Printing of “Silver Coin” money • Bi-Metalism Debate (Gold v. Silver) • Cheap Money = Inflation • Government ownership of the railroads & telegraph companies • Graduated Income Tax • Certain groups PAY for Others • “From each, according to his ability; to each, according to his need” Karl Marx - Communist Manifesto
2)Populist Party (People’s party) Silver v. Gold Debate • Printing of “Silver Coin” money • Cheap Money = Inflation • Higher prices for farmers • Government ownership of the railroads & telegraph companies • Graduated Income Tax (Marx) • progressive income tax • RICH should pay for others needs
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT GOAL is to Control Business • Interstate Commerce Act (1887) • Railroad Rates (FAIR) • Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC) • Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890) • Gov’t Regulation v. Gov’t Ownership • SOCIALIST – PROGRESSIVES • Government should OWN / CONTROL ALL of the nations resources • Eugene V. Debs (Socialist Party)
Populist Party TAKES OVER the Democratic Party 1896 Judge cartoon shows Populist Party presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan swallowing up the Democratic party.
1) Origins of Progressives *Four Goals of Progressives Protect Social Welfare Moral Improvement Economic Reform Efficiency *Clean Up Local Gov’t Reform Mayors New Gov’t Forms *Reform State Gov’t Reform Governors Child Labor Working Hours *Election Reform* Initiative Referendum Recall 17th Amendment 4)TAFT Taft as President Stumbles Tariff Republican Party Splits Problems Bull Moose Party Teddy Roosevelt Democrats Win 5)WILSON Financial Reforms Anti-Trust Clayton Anti-Trust Act New Tax System Federal Income Tax Ch. 17: The Originsof Progressivism 2) Women in the Work Force • Women Lead Reform • Women in Reform • Suffrage 3) Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal • Roosevelt’s Rise • Modern Presidency Using Federal Power • Trust Busting • Strikes • RR Regulations Health & Environment • Food & Drug Regulation • Conservation & Natural Resources Roosevelt and Civil Rights
PROGRESSIVE ERA • Urban Problems (overcrowding) • Housing, Transportation, Crime (police) , Water & Sanitation, Fire, Hospitals & other social services • Social Problems • Assimilation (New immigrants) working conditions, wages, living conditions, Racism, Political Machines, Political Corruption
BAD Slow Less Jobs Less Opportunity GOOD Fast More Jobs More Opportunity Economic Wheel Hands OFF v. Hands ON
CAPITALISM - individuals own the means of production / Industries • (FREE ENTERPRISE – People Invent / Create) • Laissez-Faire (Social Darwinism) • NO Government regulation / interference • SOCIALISM - Government owns the LARGE industries (examples) • Belief that Capitalism: wrong, greedy, corrupt ONLY the Government can be trusted • COMMUNISM- Government owns ALL means of production (individual ownership is NOT ALLOWED • Government will regulate businesses
Early Reformers • Labor Unions (workers rights) • Farmers (R.R.) “Grange Movement” • Populist Movement • Radical Ideas • Laissez-Faire Capitalism / Social Darwinism • Socialism – Gov’t own the big industries • Communism Gov’t own ALL • Nationalize – Gov’t Regulate Industries • “Progressive Era of Reforms” • Local (urban) State National
Progressive GOALS • Protecting Social Welfare • Promoting Moral Improvement • Creating Economic Reform • Fostering Efficiency (corruption)
Progressive GOALS • Protecting Social Welfare • Social Gospel & Settlement Houses • YMCA • Salvation Army • Florence Kelly • Illinois Factory Act of 1893 • Prohibited Child Labor • Limited Women’s Working Hours
Progressive GOALS • Promoting Moral Improvement • Improve peoples lives by uplifting themselves by improving their behavior • Christian Women’s Temperance Union • Carry Nation – Prohibition Movement
Progressive GOALS • Creating Economic Reform • Capitalism “attacked” by Radicals • Eugene V. Debs (American Socialist Party) • Muckrakers “expose” corruption in government and businesses • Ida M. Tarbell “History of Standard Oil”
Progressive GOALS • Fostering Efficiency in business • Scientific Management • Time and Motion Studies • “How quickly each task can be performed” • Henry Ford – Assembly Line Process
Progressivism is an umbrella label for a wide range of economic, political, social, and moralreforms. These included efforts to outlaw the sale of alcohol; regulate child labor and sweatshops; scientifically manage natural resources; insure pure and wholesome water and milk; Americanize immigrants or restrict immigration altogether; and bust or regulate trusts. • Drawing support from the urban, college-educated middle class, Progressive reformers sought to end corruption in government, regulate business practices, address health hazards, improve working conditions, and give the public more direct control over government through direct primaries to nominate candidates for public office, direct election - Senators, the initiative, referendum, recall, & women's suffrage.
Progressivism was rooted in the belief that man was capable of improving the lot of all within society. As such, it was a rejection of Social Darwinism, the position taken by many of the rich and powerful figures of the day. • Progressivism was also imbued with strong political overtones and rejected the church as the driving force for change – which had been the history of change in the United States. Specific goals included: • The desire to remove corruption and undue influence from government through the taming of bosses and political machines; • the effort to include more people more directly in the political process; • the conviction that government must play a role to solve social problems and establish fairness in economic matters.
The success of Progressivism owed much to publicity generated by the muckrakers, writers who detailed the horrors of poverty, urban slums, dangerous factory conditions, and child labor, among a host of other ills. • The successes were many, beginning with the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890). Progressives never spoke with one mind and differed sharply over the most effective means to deal with the ills generated by the trusts; some favored an activist approach to trust-busting, others preferred a regulatory approach.
A vocal minority supported socialism with government ownership of the means of production. Other Progressive reforms followed in the form of a conservation movement, railroad legislation, and food and drug laws. • The Progressive spirit also was evident in new amendments added to the Constitution, which provided for a new means to elect senators, protect society through prohibition and extend suffrage to women. • Urban problems were addressed by professional social workers who operated settlement houses as a means to protect and improve the prospects of the poor. However, efforts to place limitations on child labor were routinely thwarted by the courts. The needs of blacks and Native Americans were poorly served or served not at all — a major shortcoming of the Progressive Movement.
Progressive reforms were carried out not only on the national level, but in the states and municipalities of the country as well. Prominent governors devoted to change included Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin and Hiram Johnson of California. • Such reforms as the direct primary, secret ballot, and the initiative, referendum and recallwere effected. Local governments were strengthened by the widespread use of trained professionals, particularly with the city managersystem replacing the all-too-frequently corrupt mayoral system.
Progressive GOALSthey want the government to: • Prevent business from treating competing companies unfairly • improve safety & working conditions • Improve product safety • outlaw child labor • create programs to help the sick, the unemployed and the elderly • reduce government corruption • give women the right to vote
The Origins of PROGRESSIVISM • Muckrakersexpose “Social Evils” • Meat Industry • Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” • Ida Tarbell (Oil Trust –Standard Oil) • Radical Groups - SOCIALIST • Attack / Criticize “Capitalism”
“The Jungle” was a Socialist Propaganda Fictional Novel attacking Capitalism • It included only eight pages describing the sickening standards of meat packing. "The Jungle" was the story of Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant working in fictitious Chicago. Jurgis sees his American dream of a decent life dissolve into nightmare as his job hauling steer carcasses in the stockyards leaves him bone-weary and unable to support his family. He loses his his job when he beats up his boss, furious at discovering the cad seduced his wife; then he loses the wife to disease and his son to drowning.But Jurgis finds rebirth upon joining the Socialist Movement, and the book closes with a socialist orator shouting: "Organize! Organize! Organize! ... CHICAGO WILL BE OURS!" • "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach," he said.
EXCERPT from “The Jungle” “There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white--it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, buta man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one--there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a tidbit”
Reforming Society • Growing cities couldn’t provide people necessary services like garbage collection, safe housing, and police and fire protection. • Reformers, many of whom were women like activist Lillian Wald, saw this as an opportunity to expand public health services. • Progressives scored an early victory in New York State with the passage of the Tenement Act of 1901, which forced landlords to install lighting in public hallways and to provide at least one toilet for every two families, which helped outhouses become obsolete in New York slums. • These simple steps helped impoverished New Yorkers, and within 15 years the death rate in New York dropped dramatically. • Reformers in other states used New York law as a model for their own proposals.
Reforming the Workplace • By the late 19th century, labor unions fought for adult male workers but didn’t advocate enough for women and children. • In 1893, Florence Kelley helped push the Illinois legislature to prohibit child labor and to limit women’s working hours. • In 1904, Kelley helped organize the National Child Labor Committee, which wanted state legislatures to ban child labor. • By 1912, nearly 40 states passed child-labor laws, but states didn’t strictly enforce the laws and many children still worked. • Progressives, mounting state campaigns to limit workdays for women, were successful in states including Oregon and Utah. • But since most workers were still underpaid and living in poverty, an alliance of labor unions and progressives fought for a minimum wage, which Congress didn’t adopt until 1938. • Businesses fought labor laws in the Supreme Court, which ruled on several cases in the early 1900s concerning workday length.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire • In 1911, a gruesome disaster in New York inspired progressives to fight for safety in the workplace. • About 500 women worked for the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a high-rise building sweatshop that made women’s blouses. • Just as they were ending their six-day workweek, a small fire broke out, which quickly spread to three floors. • Escape was nearly impossible, as doors were locked to prevent theft, the flimsy fire escape broke under pressure, and the fire was too high for fire truck ladders to reach. • More than 140 women and men died in the fire, marking a turning point for labor and reform movements. • With the efforts of Union organizer Rose Schneiderman and others, New York State passed the toughest fire-safety laws in the nation, as well as factory inspection and sanitation laws. New York laws became a model for workplace safety nationwide.
“Progress” made in problems • Local Level - attacked corruption (1) throw them out (2)make changes • New Forms of City Government • Commission of experts (Galveston,Texas) • Council-manager (Trained to run Department) Dayton, Ohio
City Government Reforming government meant winning control of it: Tom Johnson of Cleveland was a successful reform mayor who set new rules for police, released debtors from prison, and supported a fairer tax system. Progressives promoted new government structures: Texas set up a five-member committee to govern Galveston after a hurricane, and by 1918, 500 cities adopted this plan. The city manager model had a professional administrator, not a politician, manage the government. State Government Progressive governor Robert La Follette created the Wisconsin Ideas, which wanted: Direct primary elections; limited campaign spending Commissions to regulate railroads and oversee transportation, civil service, and taxation Other governors pushed for reform, but some were corrupt: New York’s Charles Evan Hughes regulated insurance companies. Mississippi’s James Vardaman exploited prejudice to gain power. Reforming Government
“Progress” made in problems • Reform Mayors (Detroit, Cleveland, Toledo) -What did they do? • 19 Socialist Mayors – Public Utilities • Public Owned Enterprise (SOCIALISM) for • Water, Electricity, Gas, Transit Lines
“Progress” made in problems • Reform Governors (Wisconsin) • Robert La Follette (attack Business) • Railroads • Social Legislation by many states • Child Labor Laws • 1904 National Child Labor Committee • Keating-Owen Act of 1916 (Unconstitutional) • Limiting Work Hours • 1908 Muller v. Oregon • Fire Safety Codes and Laws
Election Reforms • Progressives wanted fairer elections and to make politicians more accountable to voters. • Proposed a direct primary, or an election in which voters choose candidates to run in a general election, which most states adopted. • Backed the Seventeenth Amendment, which gave voters, not state legislatures, the power to elect their U.S. senators. • Some measures Progressives fought for include
Oregon System of Reforms INITIATIVE-people initiate a law REFERENDUM-people vote on laws RECALL-”fire”elected officials DIRECT PRIMARY- candidates decided • Special Popular Election Secret Ballot in Voting / Unions Federal Reforms – 17th Amendment (DIRECT ELECTION SENATORS)
WOMEN’S ACTIVIST REFORMERS • Social Reform Leaders • Social Gospel Movements • Hull House (Jane Addams) • Women’s Clubs • Women Became Labor Organizers • Mother Jones of the Mines/Mills • “children’s march on Washington” • Pauline Newman of Garment Trade • “Triangle Company Fire” (NY City
Two Suffrage Organizations Merge • In 1890 the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). • NAWSA operated under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony was its President from 1892–1900. • Anthony died in 1906, and her final words were “Failure is impossible.” • Like Susan B. Anthony, most of the early suffragists did not live long enough to cast their ballots. • When women nationwide finally won the vote in 1920, only one signer of the Seneca Falls Declaration—the document written at the first Women’s Rights Convention in 1848—was still alive. • Her name was Charlotte Woodward, and she was a glove maker.
Suffrage at Last • Susan B. Anthony - Seneca Falls Convention 1848 • Strategies to win Suffrage: -amending the Constitution -pushing individual states to pass laws permit women the right to vote *Wyoming 1869 – other Western States • World War I helps “new view” of women and men’s separate spheres. • Aug. 24, 1920 “19th Amendment” • Pres. Woodrow Wilson will Support
Prohibition • Progressive women also fought in the Prohibition movement, which called for a ban on making, selling, and distributing alcoholic beverages. • Reformers thought alcohol was responsible for crime, poverty, and violence. • Two major national organizations led the crusade against alcohol. • The Anti-Saloon League • The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), headed by Frances Willard, which was a powerful force for both temperance and women’s rights • Evangelists like Billy Sunday and Carry Nation preached against alcohol, and Nation smashed up saloons with a hatchet while holding a Bible. Congress eventually proposed the Eighteenth Amendment in 1917, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol. It was ratified in 1919, but was so unpopular that it was repealed in 1933.
MORAL IMPROVEMENTTemperance Crusade Grows into PROHIBITION • Carry Nation • 1916 – 19 states pass Prohibition Laws • 1917 – 18th Amendment • PROHIBITION
Roosevelt’s Upbringing • Theodore Roosevelt was a sickly, shy youth whom doctors forbade to play sports or do strenuous activities. • In his teenage years, Roosevelt reinvented himself, taking up sports and becoming vigorous, outgoing, and optimistic. • Roosevelt came from a prominent New York family and attended Harvard University, but he grew to love the outdoors. • He spent time in northern Maine and in the rugged Badlands of North Dakota, riding horses and hunting buffalo. • In 1884, when Roosevelt was 26, both his mother and his young wife died unexpectedly. • Trying to forget his grief, he returned to his ranch in Dakota Territory, where he lived and worked with cowboys. • He returned to New York after two years and entered politics.
Roosevelt’s View of the Presidency • Roosevelt’s rise to governor of New York upset the Republican political machine. • To get rid of the progressive Roosevelt, party bosses got him elected as vice president, a position with little power at that time. From Governor to Vice President • President William McKinley was shot and killed in 1901, leaving the office to Roosevelt. • At 42 years old he was the youngest president and an avid reformer. Unlikely President • Roosevelt saw the presidency as a bully pulpit, or a platform to publicize important issues and seek support for his policies on reform. View of Office
Ch. 17: The Originsof Progressivism 3)Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal • Roosevelt’s Rise • Modern Presidency Using Federal Power • Trust Busting • Strikes • RR Regulations Health & Environment • Food & Drug Regulation Conservation & Natural Resources Roosevelt and Civil Rights
“Theodore RooseveltBecomes Progressive Leader” • Roosevelt’s Personal History out-doors, conservationist, protecting natural resources (nature lover) • -Republican Governor (NY) -V-Pres (McKinley- “assassinated 1901”) • Roosevelt’s SQUARE DEAL • Regulate Business (Trust Buster) • Conservation (National Resources)
Labor Crisis • United Mine Workers Strike • Forced Arbitration • Labor and Owners MUST DEAL FAIRLY with each other • Gov’t ARBRITRATION
The Coal Strike of 1902 • Soon after Roosevelt took office, some 150,000 Pennsylvania coal miners went on strike for higher wages, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. • As winter neared, Roosevelt feared what might happen if the strike was not resolved, since Eastern cities depended upon Pennsylvania coal for heating. • Roosevelt urged mine owners and the striking workers to accept Arbitration, and though the workers accepted, the owners refused. • Winter drew closer, and Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines if the owners didn’t agree to arbitration, marking the first time the federal government had intervened in a strike to protect the interests of the public. • After a three-month investigation, the arbitrators decided to give the workers a shorter workday and higher pay but did not require the mining companies to recognize the union. • Satisfied, Roosevelt pronounced the compromise a “SQUARE DEAL.”
The Square Deal • The Square Deal became Roosevelt’s 1904 campaign slogan and the framework for his entire presidency. • He promised to “see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less.” • Roosevelt’s promise revealed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced. • Roosevelt’s square deal called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions. The popular president faced no opposition for the nomination in his party. In the general election Roosevelt easily defeated his Democratic opponent, Judge Alton Parker of New York.
Trust Buster • Make corporations serve the public good • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Regulating Big Business • Roosevelt believed big business was essential to the nation’s growth but also believed companies should behave responsibly. • He spent a great deal of attention on regulating corporations, determined that they should serve the public interest. • In 1901, when three tycoons joined their railroad companies together to eliminate competition, their company, the Northern Securities Company, dominated rail shipping from Chicago to the Northwest. • The following year, Roosevelt directed the U.S. attorney general to sue the company for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Court ruled that the monopoly did, in fact, violate the act and must be dissolved. After this ruling, the Roosevelt administration launched a vigorous trust-busting campaign. Size didn’t matter; the administration went after bad trusts that sold inferior products, competed unfairly, or corrupted public officials.
The Elkins Act Passed in 1903 Prohibited railroads from accepting rebates Ensured that all customers paid the same rates for shipping their products The Hepburn Act Passed in 1906 Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), giving it the power to set maximum railroad rates Gave the ICC power to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce Regulating the Railroads • Another way to ensure businesses competed fairly was through regulation. • Railroads often granted rebates to their best customers, which meant large corporations paid much less for shipping than small farmers or small businesses. • To alleviate this problem, Congress passed two acts.