natural language processing compsci 423 723 n.
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Natural Language Processing COMPSCI 423/723

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Natural Language Processing COMPSCI 423/723

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  1. Natural Language ProcessingCOMPSCI 423/723 Rohit Kate

  2. Syntactic Parsing Most of the slides have been adapted from Raymond Mooney’s NLP course at UT Austin.

  3. Basic Steps of Natural Language Processing Phonetics Words Syntactic processing Parses Semantic processing Meaning Pragmatic processing Sound waves Meaning in context

  4. Syntax • Syntax is the study of word orders and phrase structures • Syntactic analysis tells how to determine meaning of a sentence from the meaning its of words or whether a sentence is legal • The dog bit the man. • The man bit the dog. • *Bit the the man dog. • Syntactic analysis is useful for semantic analysis and is helpful for applications like information extraction, question answering etc.

  5. Phrase Structure • Words are organized into phrases, group of words that act as a single unit or a constituent • [The dog] [chased] [the cat]. • [The fat dog] [chased] [the thin cat]. • [The fat dog with red collar] [chased] [the thin old cat]. • [The fat dog with red collar named Tom] [suddenly chased] [the thin old white cat].

  6. Phrases • Noun phrase: A syntactic unit of a sentence which acts like a noun and in which a noun is usually embedded called its head • An optional determiner followed by zero or more adjectives, a noun head and zero or more prepositional phrases • Prepositional phrase: Headed by a preposition and express spatial, temporal or other attributes • Verb phrase: Part of the sentence that depend on the verb. Headed by the verb. • Adjective phrase: Acts like an adjective.

  7. Grammars A basic question in Linguistics: What forms a legal sentence in a language? Linguists have come up with many grammar formalisms to capture syntax of languages, phrase structure grammar or context free grammar is one of them and is very commonly used

  8. Syntactic Parsing with Context Free Grammars Produce the correct syntactic parse tree for a sentence.

  9. Context Free Grammars (CFG) N a set of non-terminal symbols (or variables)  a set of terminal symbols (disjoint from N) R a set of productions or rules of the form A→, where A is a non-terminal and  is a string of symbols from ( N)* S, a designated non-terminal called the start symbol

  10. Simple CFG for ATIS English Grammar Lexicon S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through

  11. Sentence Generation Sentences are generated by recursively rewriting the start symbol using the productions until only terminals symbols remain. S Derivation or Parse Tree VP Verb NP Det Nominal book Nominal PP the Prep NP Noun Proper-Noun flight through Houston

  12. Parsing Given a sentence and a CFG, determine if the sentence can be generated by the CFG and if so return the parse tree If not, then the sentence is not a legal sentence of English (or the subset of English captured by the CFG) If there are more than one way to generate the sentence (multiple parse trees) then the sentence is ambiguous

  13. Parsing Parsing involves searching the space of derivations for one that derives the given string Top-Down Parsing: Start searching space of derivations for the start symbol. Bottom-up Parsing: Start search space of reverse deivations from the terminal symbols in the string.

  14. Parsing Example S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through book that flight

  15. Parsing Example S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Parsing book that flight Det Nominal book that Noun flight

  16. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP Pronoun

  17. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP Pronoun X book

  18. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP ProperNoun

  19. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP ProperNoun X book

  20. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP Det Nominal

  21. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S NP VP Det Nominal X book

  22. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S Aux NP VP

  23. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S Aux NP VP X book

  24. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP

  25. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb

  26. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb book

  27. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb X book that

  28. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP

  29. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP book

  30. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Pronoun book

  31. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Pronoun book X that

  32. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP ProperNoun book

  33. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP ProperNoun book X that

  34. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Det Nominal book

  35. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Det Nominal book that

  36. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Det Nominal book that Noun

  37. Top Down Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through S VP Verb NP Det Nominal book that Noun flight

  38. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through book that flight 38

  39. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Noun book that flight 39

  40. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Noun book that flight 40

  41. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal Noun Noun book that flight 41

  42. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal Noun X Noun book that flight 42

  43. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP Noun book that flight 43

  44. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP Noun Det book that flight 44

  45. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP NP Noun Nominal Det book that flight 45

  46. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP NP Noun Nominal Det book that Noun flight 46

  47. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP NP Noun Nominal Det book that Noun flight 47

  48. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal S Nominal PP NP VP Noun Nominal Det book that Noun flight 48

  49. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal S Nominal PP NP VP Noun Nominal Det X book that Noun flight 49

  50. Bottom Up Parsing S → NP VP S → Aux NP VP S → VP NP → Pronoun NP → Proper-Noun NP → Det Nominal Nominal → Noun Nominal → Nominal Noun Nominal → Nominal PP VP → Verb VP → Verb NP VP → VP PP PP → Prep NP Det → the | a | that | this Noun → book | flight | meal | money Verb → book | include | prefer Pronoun → I | he | she | me Proper-Noun → Houston | NWA Aux → does Prep → from | to | on | near | through Nominal Nominal PP X NP Noun Nominal Det book that Noun flight 50