Plagiarism and Writing in Depth Adding Fullness To Your Writing
What is Plagiarism? • The use of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work. • In most academic institutions (ex: schools, colleges, universities, etc.) this is a serious breach of ethnic policy and will result in academic consequences, or failure.
How Do I Avoid It? • Planning Your Writing: Check with your teacher, plan your paper, take effective notes, edit, etc. • Writing: When in doubt cite sources, make it clear who said what, know how to paraphrase, analyze and evaluate your sources. • www.plagiarism.org
Valid Sources of Information • When bombarded with sources while doing research you as a writer must determine what is a valid source and what is not, and what sources are most valuable to your work and which ones are not. • Technology has added a twist to research, in that not all sources on the web are valid. You must double check and validate your source by cross referencing it with other work or making sure it is from a peer reviewed or respectable academic source.
Example of Plagiarism • Canada is a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a Sovereign as head of State and an elected Prime Minister as head of Government. • Canada has a federal system of parliamentary government, where federal, provincial and territorial governments share government responsibilities and functions. • The Monarchy and the executive, legislative and judicial branches of Government carry out federal responsibilities.
How to NOT Plagiarize • Canada is a democratic country. The Canadian government is organized in a very complex fashion but functions effectively when it needs to. The Government of Canada’s website explains the organization of the country’s government when it states, “Canada is a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a Sovereign as head of State and an elected Prime Minister as head of Government. • Canada has a federal system of parliamentary government, where federal, provincial and territorial governments share government responsibilities and functions. • The Monarchy and the executive, legislative and judicial branches of Government carry out federal responsibilities.”1 Bibliography: 1 http://canada.ca/en/gov/system/index.html
How To Cite Different Mediums of Work • Depending on if your source is a website, book, blog, television show, etc. OR the format in which your teacher wants your piece of work written (APA, MLA, etc.) it will determine how to properly cite your sources. When in doubt, CHECK!
Adding Depth to Your Writing • The days of answering questions with simple, discrete one or two word OR one or two sentence answers are over. You are now at a level where you MUST add thought, feeling, connection, question and depth to your writing and your answers. • Plan ahead and think about an answer before you write. • Leave nothing to the readers imagination. When in doubt, get someone else to read your answer and if they have questions, so does your teacher. • It is not about LENGTH of an answer, it is about EXPANSION of your explanation.
Example… • Question: Who were the first two ethnic groups to settle Nova Scotia and what challenges did they face? • Answer: The first two groups to settle Nova Scotia after the Aboriginals were the British and the French. The British settled between the years of….and…. and the French settled between the years of…..and….. Some challenges the British faced were……and, …… and, …… and this affected them by……. Some challenges the French faced were…..and, ……, and….. and this affected them by……. I think……..
Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing is READING, VIEWING, LISTENING to something and DETERMINING WHAT IS IMPORTANT and TRANSFORMING IT IN TO YOUR OWN THOUGHTS AND WORDS. • This is a skill that you MUST have going forward. • Let’s try it out…..
Hippopotamus • Hippopotamuses love water, which is why the Greeks named them the "river horse." Hippos spend up to 16 hours a day submerged in rivers and lakes to keep their massive bodies cool under the hot African sun. Hippos are graceful in water, good swimmers, and can hold their breath underwater for up to five minutes. However, they are often large enough to simply walk or stand on the lake floor, or lie in the shallows. Their eyes and nostrils are located high on their heads, which allows them to see and breathe while mostly submerged. • Hippos also bask on the shoreline and secrete an oily red substance, which gave rise to the myth that they sweat blood. The liquid is actually a skin moistener and sunblock that may also provide protection against germs. • At sunset, hippopotamuses leave the water and travel overland to graze. They may travel 6 miles (10 kilometers) in a night, along single-file pathways, to consume some 80 pounds (35 kilograms) of grass. Considering their enormous size, a hippo's food intake is relatively low. If threatened on land hippos may run for the water—they can match a human's speed for short distances. • Hippo calves weigh nearly 100 pounds (45 kilograms) at birth and can suckle on land or underwater by closing their ears and nostrils. Each female has only one calf every two years. Soon after birth, mother and young join schools that provide some protection against crocodiles, lions, and hyenas. • Hippos once had a broader distribution but now live in eastern central and southern sub-Saharan Africa, where their populations are in decline. • Briefly describe the behavior of a Hippopotamus using specific examples from the reading.
Survival 101 • Take the TIME to do it RIGHT • EDIT! EDIT! EDIT! • Utilize all the tools and resources you have at your disposal • USE your teachers as a guide to navigate through information • READ things thoroughly and for MEANING…not just to see the words. • Read questions slowly and understand their meaning. • Use proper citations • Write clearly and with expression, not blank and direct • MAKE CONNECTIONS AND QUESTION • Be confident in your ability to GAIN information and USE it appropriately.