THE DREIKURS MODEL Discipline Through Democratic Teaching Confronting Mistaken Goals
BIOGRAPHY • Created by Rudolf Dreikurs, born in Vienna, Austria in 1897 • Received a medical degree from University of Austria • Conducted studies on family and childhood counseling with Alfred Adler • Immigrated to the U.S. in 1937 and became director of Alfred Adler Instiute of Chicago • Served as professor of psychiatry at Chicago Medical School • Career focus = family-child counseling
PUBLICATIONS • Became recognized in the area of classroom behavior through his books • Psychology in the Classroom (1968) • Discipline without Tears (1972) (coauthored with Pearl Cassel) • Maintaining Sanity in the Classroom (1982) (coauthored with Bernice Grunwald)
MORE ABOUT DREIKUR… • His work has been continued through former student, Dr. Linda Albert • Dr. Linda Albert further created Cooperative Discipline, based on Dreikur’s concepts and added on “Three C’s”: Capable, Connect, Contribute • Her work is outlined in her book A Teacher’s Guide to Cooperative Discipline (1989, revised 1996)
DREIKUR’S FOCUS • One of the first to explore underlying causes of student misbehavior • Democratic classroom and teaching style • Identifying and dealing with mistaken goals
DREIKUR’S CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES • Discipline • Autocratic teacher • Permissive Teacher • Democratic Teacher • Democratic Classroom • Genuine goal of belonging • Mistaken goals (four of them): getting attention, seeking power, seeking revenge, displaying inadequacy • Misbehavior • Encouragement • Logical consequences • Punishment
ANALYSIS: TYPES OF DISCIPLINE • Self-discipline: grows out of living with reasonable limits on behavior while recognizing that all behavior produces consequences. • Aversive discipline: stifles initiative. It imposes unreasonable constraints coupled with harsh consequences when rules are broken.