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The Middle Ages: 1066–1485 Introduction to the Literary Period

The Middle Ages: 1066–1485 Introduction to the Literary Period

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The Middle Ages: 1066–1485 Introduction to the Literary Period

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  1. The Middle Ages: 1066–1485Introduction to the Literary Period Feature Menu Interactive Time Line Milestone: The Norman Conquest Milestone: The Age of Feudalism Milestone: The Magna Carta Milestone: The Decline of Feudalism Milestone: The Black Death Milestone: The Hundred Years’ War What Have You Learned?

  2. The Middle Ages: 1066–1485 Choose a link on the time line to go to a milestone. 1066 Norman Conquest 1348–1349 Black Death 1215 Magna Carta 1337–1453 Hundred Years’ War 1100 1200 1500 1000 1300 1400 1000s–1300s Age of Feudalism 1300s–1400s Decline of Feudalism

  3. The Norman Conquest William the Conqueror • a duke from Normandy, France • claimed the English throne had been promised to him In 1066 . . . • crosses the English Channel with a huge army • defeats King Harold at the Battle of Hastings

  4. The Norman Conquest The Normans Change England • land divided among William’s followers from Normandy • more contact with European civilization • a new language—French • a new social system—feudalism

  5. King Lordspowerful landowners Vassalsdid work or military service for feudal lords in exchange for land Serfsservants to lords and vassals, bound to their master’s land The Age of Feudalism Feudalism • social, property, and military system • based on a religious concept of rank • some vassals appointed by king in return for loyalty • lords (powerful vassals) appoint their own vassals

  6. The Age of Feudalism Knights in Shining Armor • provided military service to lords • often the sons of nobles • began training at an early age • wore very heavy armor into battle • followed a code of chivalry

  7. The Age of Feudalism Code of Chivalry • A code of conduct that covered • whom to defend—knight’s lord, the king, and the Christian faith • how to treat a lady—courtly love • how to help others • how to resist the urge to run away if captured

  8. The Age of Feudalism Courtly Love • The knight • adored the lady and was inspired by her • glorified the lady in words • The lady • remained pure and out of reach • was set above her admirer

  9. The Age of Feudalism The Romance • new genre of literature • inspired by legends of chivalrous knights • hero goes on quest to conquer evil enemy • hero often has magical help • includes stories of distant, idealized courtly love

  10. The Age of Feudalism The Crusades (1095—1270) • series of holy wars • waged by European Christians against Muslims in the Middle East • ultimately unsuccessful • Europeans benefit from contact with Arab civilization

  11. No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way harmed, nor will we go upon him nor will we send upon him, except by the legal judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. To none will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice. —Magna Carta, clauses 39 and 40 The Magna Carta 1215 • Magna Carta—“Great Charter” • signed by King John, under pressure from English barons • protected rights of aristocrats • meant a return to more democratic tendencies

  12. The Decline of Feudalism Growth of Cities and Towns • townspeople not tied to master’s land or to knighthood • merchant class—people earn their own money • city people’s tastes influence arts—ballads, miracle plays, and so on

  13. The Decline of Feudalism Monetary System Before the Crusades After the Crusades • foreign coins are melted down • gold coins are used • peasants can earn gold in exchange for labor or goods • few coins exist • feudal lords make coins for use on their own property only • peasants can save money, have greater buying and selling power • serfs use barter system

  14. England’s population is reduced by one-third. Labor shortage gives lower classes more bargainingpower. Over time, serfs gain freedom. The Black Death 1348–1349 Black Death (bubonic plague) • highly contagious and fatal disease, spread by the fleas on infected rats • factor in decline of feudalism

  15. The Hundred Years’ War 1337–1453 • war between England and France • England unsuccessful • leads to British national consciousness Yeoman • small landowners with longbows • begin to become dominant force (instead of knights)

  16. The Crusades Hundred Years’ War Black Death What Have You Learned? Match the cause to its effect. Cause Effect __________ A labor shortage gives serfs more bargaining power. __________ The English are exposed to Eastern cultures and knowledge. __________ Yeomen replace knights as main military group. Black Death The Crusades Hundred Years’ War

  17. END