REMINDER • Robert Goddard—1926—liquid-fueled launch in the US • World War II Ends • Russians and Americans compete for German engineers and technology • Engineers included Werner von Braun • Technology included jet aircraft (ME-262) and V-2 Rocket • 1957—Sputnik and then 1958—Explorer
MERCURY • 5 YEARS: 1958-1963 • 6 FLIGHTS: • Alan Shepardfirst American in space—suborbital • Gus Grissom first Air Force Pilot—blew hatch on Liberty Bell 7 • John Glenn—first American to orbit earth 3 times • Since then we conducted experiments, managed fuel and electricity and tested endurance • Was man ready to work in space?
Gemini • Gemini is Latin for Twins • Twin stars: Castor and Pollux • Gemini would be a two-man capsule • Involved 12 flights—2 unmanned to bridge the gap between Mercury to Apollo • Mission • Two men in space for flights up to 2 weeks • Dock with a ship already in orbit and maneuver the two ships using the propulsion system of the one already in orbit • To perfect ways of entering the atmosphere and landing in a preselected point • To understand weightlessness and its effects on the human body
First American to Walk in Space • Alexi Leonov—18 March 1965 • Ed White—pilot USAF—attended West Point but had to knock on doors • 3 June 1965—the first EVA • Extravehicular Activity • Gemini IV • Lasted 23 minutes • Unique—HE WAS THE FIRST TO USE JET PROPULSION TO MANEUVER
SUMMARY OF GEMINI • It was a success • All objectives were met • Two men in space for flights up to 2 weeks • Dock with a ship already in orbit and maneuver the two ships using the propulsion system of the one already in orbit • To perfect ways of entering the atmosphere and landing in a preselected point—ONLY THEY DECIDED NOT TO TOUCH DOWN ON DRY LAND • To understand weightlessness and its effects on the human body
MAN WAS READY FOR THE MOON • APOLLO—the Greek god of music, light, and the Sun • The project had many success and two failures • Apollo 1 • Apollo 13
GOALS OF APOLLO • Establish technologies needed to further other national interests • To achieve preeminence in space • To explore the Moon • To develop humans’ ability to work on the moon
APOLLO 1 • 27 Jan 1967 • Mock launch sequence at the end of the day • Short in a panel and a pure oxygen atmosphere • All three astronauts were lost • Gus Grissom—Liberty Bell 7 Fame • Ed White—first space walk • Roger Chaffee • Reworked the electronics and changed the oxygen mixture
APOLLO 11 • Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins • Took off 16 July 1969 • Landed 20 July • Armstrong and Aldrin took a 2.5 hour walk • Collins orbited • Total of 22 hours on the surface • Two and half days orbiting the moon
GREAT WORDS • Quotes • Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed • That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind • Plaque left on surface: • Here men from planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind.
Apollo 13 • The most successful failure of the program • Astronauts: Lovell, Swigert and Haise • Launched 11 April, and explosion occurred on 13 April 1970 • Caused by a short in the oxygen system • Required many team problem solving situations
Apollo Overview • US only country to land man on the moon—12 • Apollo 11, 12, 14,15, 16, 17 • Last three had lunar rover missions • Apollo 17 spent 75 hours on the moon • 7-19 December 1972 • 22 hours in moon walks • Apollo 18-20 were cancelled for lack of funding • Capsules were used for Apollo-Soyuz missions