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International Labour Organization

International Labour Organization

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International Labour Organization

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  1. International Labour Organization CONDITIONS AND NEEDS OF SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN TRANSPORT IN EU MEMBER STATES AND CANDIDATE COUNTRIES & THE ILO’s SECTORAL APPROACH ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR Marios Meletiou Technical Specialist (Ports and Transport) SectoralActivities Department, ILO A4-54169 Decent Work for Transport Workers Closing Conference 15 November 2011, ETF, Brussels, Belgium

  2. International Labour Organization STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION Part A: Introduction Part B: Conditions & Social Dialogue in Transport in EU Member States Part C: Key Information about the ILO Part D: The ILO’s Sectoral Approach Part E: Selected Current & Future ILO Transport Related Activities

  3. International Labour Organization Part A: Introduction • Globalization and Transport • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector

  4. International Labour Organization Part A: Introduction • Globalization and Transport

  5. International Labour Organization “Globalization” means different things to different people: • For some it is the culprit of poverty and war • For others is a requirement to economic development for a growing world population • For a certain group is an opportunity for increasing financial returns • For most of us in the transport sector is a concept that describes a trend in international trade.

  6. Current Trends in International Trade • Trade is growing faster than the world’s GDP • Trade is not only in finished goods and services but increasingly in components, semi-finished products and services that are used within globalized production processes

  7. The Link between International Transport & Globalization • Effective, efficient and lower cost transport systems have encouraged “Globalization” • International transport is growing because it is required to move increased volumes of traded goods and components as well as people for increased international professional and tourist activities • Transport is one of the four cornerstones of “Globalization”

  8. The Four Cornerstones of “Globalization” • Transport has made it ever easier to buy and sell goods, raw materials and components almost anywhere in the world • Telecommunications are the necessary tools to transfer information • Trade liberalization allows the efficient international allocation of resources • International standards and homogeneous products foster global competition

  9. MODES OF TRANSPORT • Maritime Transport • Inland Waterways • Air transport • Road Transport • Railways • Pipelines • Space Transport!!!

  10. International Labour Organization Transport is a service industry that provides services to: • Cargo • Passengers • Other modes of transport

  11. International Labour Organization Maritime Transport is probably the most globalized industry • Most maritime transport is provided between two or more countries • The service providers no longer need to be nationals of the same countries whose cargo they move

  12. A possible real life scenario demonstrating the globalized nature of maritime transport A Greek owned vessel, built in Korea using financing from a consortium of three international banks through their branches in Tokyo, New York and Frankfurt, registered in Panama, chartered to a Danish operator that operates through an offshore company in Singapore, who employs seafarers from the Philippines and Ukraine via a Cypriot crewing agent, insured in the UK, transports German made cargo in the name of a Swiss freight forwarder from a Dutch port to Argentina, through terminals that are concessioned to port operators from Hong Kong and Dubai respectively.

  13. Globalization Challenges • Economic • Financial • Legal • Environmental • Social & Labour! • Security!

  14. International Labour Organization Fair Globalization and the ILO

  15. The Report of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization On 24 February 2004, the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization released its report titled: “A fair globalization: Creating opportunities for all” Available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/fairglobalization/index.htm

  16. “A fair globalization: Creating opportunities for all” • Available in the following Languages: • English • French • Spanish • Chinese • Arabic • Russian • German

  17. Spirit of the Commission’s Report • Seeks a process of globalization with strong social dimension based on universally shared values and respect for human rights and individual dignity • Advocates for a globalization that is fair, inclusive, democratically governed and provides opportunities and tangible benefits for all countries and people

  18. The Commission’s Report Calls for • A focus on people • A democratic and effective State • Sustainable development • Productive and equitable markets • Fair rules • Globalization with solidarity • Greater accountability to people • Deeper Partnerships • An effective United Nations

  19. International Labour Organization Part A: Introduction • Globalization and Transport • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector

  20. International Labour Organization Social dialogue in the transport sector The social partners in the transport sector have, for many years, acknowledged the contribution that social dialogue can make to both efficient operations and decent work. Social dialogue in good faith is still the most effective way of preventing conflict, in so far as possible.

  21. International Labour Organization • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector • Globalization and transport • Multi-modal supply chains • Multinational transport / logistics firms • Economic regional integrations • Fairer competition • Protecting and promoting “DecentWork”

  22. International Labour Organization • Who is Driving Change? • Retailers/manufacturers • International shipping lines • Global operators • Shippers / exporters / importers • Integrators • National / international legislation • Internal regulations of IGOs

  23. Dinosaurs died out! Mammals did not! Instead!! They embraced change and survived!!!

  24. International Labour Organization The Need for Institutions and Capacity for Social Dialogue for Reforms in the Transport Sector Reforming the transport sector is a continual process that takes place at different rates and from different starting points according to circumstances. There is, therefore, no universal standard formula for restructuring the transport sector. Consequently, in order to ensure that the issues concerning structural adjustment in the transport sector are effectively addressed in a transparent manner, the institutions and capacity for social dialogue between the parties concerned need to be in place and might need to be strengthened.

  25. International Labour Organization • Representation of the Social Partners • State– Ministries of Labour and Transport, public Transport authorities and public operating companies • Employers– major private transport operators, business associations, employers’ associations, international associations • Workers – workplace representatives, works councils, worker directors, trade unions, national federations, international federations

  26. International Labour Organization • Representation of other Stakeholders • Users (e.g. shippers, importers/exporters) • Integrators (e.g. distribution and logistics companies) • Other transport operators • Local communities • Environmentalists

  27. International Labour Organization Part B: Conditions & Social Dialogue in Transport in EU Member States

  28. International Labour Organization • European Social Dialogue • Inter-professional (BUSINESSEUROPE, UEAPME, CEEP and ETUC) • Sector (36 Sector Social Dialogue Committees) • European Works Councils (880 active)

  29. International Labour Organization In Europe, the basic enabling conditions for social dialogue are embedded in the constitution of most Member States and their corpus of employment law. Nonetheless, the European Commission has noted a “social dialogue deficit” in some of the newer Member States. Social dialogue is a vital pillar of European democracy, with a clearly defined basis in the EC Treaty (Articles 138 and 139). The role played by social dialogue is based on its unique format – the fact that the social partners are in a unique position within civil society as the representatives of the world of work, where organized interests are in a position to make joint commitments and enforce agreements.

  30. International Labour Organization Specific Dimensions of Working Conditions & Outcomes Used by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living & Working Conditions

  31. International Labour Organization Working conditions and outcomes - Land Transport Sector in EU • The specific dimensions of working conditions are assigned favourable and unfavourable scores. • Looking at the statistically significant differences only, workers in the land transport sector score unfavourably with regard to many dimensions. • Workers in this sector are exposed to a higher than average degree to long working hours (more than 48 weekly working hours) and non-standard working hours (night and evening work, Saturday/ Sunday work and more than 10 working hours a day). • Unsurprisingly, this sector scores relatively unfavourably on work–life balance, which means that working hours do not fit in well with family or social commitments outside work.

  32. International Labour Organization Key findings – Land Transport • In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the land transport sector is a relatively male-dominated sector, with a comparatively small proportion of young workers. • Permanent employment contracts are highly prevalent and the income is high in comparison to average levels. • The education level, is below average: only a small proportion of workers has completed tertiary education. • With regard to working conditions and outcomes, workers in land transport are generally placed on the unfavourable side of the scale. • Long and nonstandard working hours are highly prevalent in this sector, which may explain the unfavourable score on work–life balance. • Low levels of job control and skilled work characterises this sector. • On average, workers in land transport have unfavourable scores on work related stress, musculoskeletal problems and exposure to physical violence.

  33. International Labour Organization Working conditions and outcomes Water and Air Transport Sector • Looking at the statistically significant differences only, employees in this sector have a relatively unfavourable score on level of job control (the ability to choose or change the order of tasks, methods of work and speed or rate of work).

  34. International Labour Organization Key findings – Water & Air Transport Sector • In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the water and air transport and supporting and auxiliary transport activities sector is characterised by a higher than average proportion of male workers and a predominance of large companies. • Self-employment is not common in this sector compared to the average. In terms of income level, workers in this sector tend to fall into the high income band. • With regard to working conditions and outcomes, this sector scores unfavourably only on level of job control. Scores on other dimensions are not statistically significant.

  35. International Labour Organization Part C: Key Information about the ILO • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO • ILO’s commitment to social dialogue

  36. International Labour Organization Part C: Key Information about the ILO • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO

  37. International Labour Organization • The ILO Was Founded in 1919 • Is The First UN Specialized Agency • 183 Member States

  38. International Labour Organization The ILO is the UN specialized agency, which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights

  39. International Labour Organization In 1969 The ILO Was Awarded The Nobel Prize For Peace!

  40. International Labour Organization Within the UN system, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs.

  41. International Labour Organization The ILO’s “DECENT WORK FOR ALL” Current Agenda

  42. A definition of decent work “Opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity”

  43. International Labour Organization • The ILO formulates and promotes international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labour rights . • It also develops and promotes the implementation of codes of practice, guidelines, manuals and training materials and provides relevant technical assistance.

  44. ILO “Products” • Conventions (Mandatory) • Recommendations • Codes of Practice & Guidelines • Manuals • Training Materials

  45. International Labour Organization The ILO adopted 189 Conventions!

  46. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS In essence, International Labour Standards are expressions of international tripartite agreements on a matter. • Conventions • International treaties, subject to ratification by ILO member States • Create binding obligations under International Law • Might require Member States to amend their national legislation • Recommendations • Set out guidelines which can orient national policy and action. • Often complement Conventions.

  47. International Labour Organization Part C: Key Information about the ILO • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO • ILO’s commitment to social dialogue

  48. International Labour Organization The ILO's commitment to tripartism and social dialogue Tripartism and social dialogue are integral components of "decent and productive work, for all women and men, and constitute essential channels for achieving this "in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.

  49. ILO Broad Definition of Social Dialogue Social dialogue is any type of negotiation, consultation or exchange of information between, or among, representatives of governments, employers and workers, on issues of common interest relating directly to work and related economic and social policies. It covers tripartite social dialogue and industrial relations processes and institutions such as trade unions, employers’ associations and collective bargaining.

  50. International Labour Organization International Labour Conference “legitimate, independent and democratic organizations of workers and employers, engaging in dialogue and collective bargaining, bring a tradition of social peace based on free negotiations and accommodation of conflicting interests, therefore making social dialogue a central element of democratic societies” (90th Session, June 2002).