International Organization Lecture 10
The Formal Organization of International Politics • Largely a 20th Century Phenomenon • In 1900, about 37 International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) • Mostly concerned with technical matters • In 1997, about 260 IGOs • War, peace, and security • Economic development • Environment • NGOs Not Counted in This Total
What Do IGOs DO? • Security Cooperation • UN • NATO • Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe • Economic Cooperation • International Monetary Fund • World Bank • World Trade Organization (WTO) • Org. for Economic Cooperation and Development • Health, Environmental, and Humanitarian Cooperation
The United Nations • The “Legislature” • Security Council • The General Assembly • The “Executive” • The General Secretary and Agencies • The “Judiciary” • International Court of Justice • How Big? • Staff of less than 10,000 • Annual budget of $2.5 billion
UN Reduces the Severity of the Security Dilemma. Governments Must Provide Own Security. Producing More Weapons Makes Neighboring States Less Secure. Neighbor States Build More Weapons. None Are Any More Secure After Than Before the Build Up. Can’t Not Build Weapons, One’s Security Might Diminish. UN Provides Framework for Collective Security. Article 2: All Members must “refrain. . . from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independent of any state.” Only Exception is Self Defense (Article 51). Security Council Can Impose Non-Military Sanctions, and Call for Military Response All Members are Obliged to “Accept and Carry Out.” Measures Should Reduce Security Dilemma. IOs and Liberalism
Economic IGOs Economic IGOs Promote Economic Interdependence. Trade • The International Trade Organization, The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (in 1964). Now the WTO. • Oriented Toward Creation of Open, Market-Based, Non-Discriminatory International Trade System. Finance: The Bretton Woods System • The International Monetary Fund, The World Bank • The IMF: Provides Balance of Payments Financing and Facilitates International Financial Cooperation. • The World Bank: Provides Long-Term Loans for Economic Development. • Together Would Create Stable International Economy To Promote Interdependence and Prosperity.
Promoting Democracy? • UN Role Limited Because of Sovereignty—No Right to Intervene in a Member Country’s Domestic Political Affairs. • Article 2: “The Organization is Based on the Principle of the Sovereign Equality of All its Members.” • UN Emphasis Between 1945 and 1970 Was on De-Colonization (Self-Determination Rather than Democratization). • General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) of December 14, 1960 • Alien Domination Contrary to UN Charter • All Peoples Have the Right To Self Determination • Inadequacy of Political, Economic and Social Conditions Not Legitimate Excuse for Refusing Independence • All Powers of Government Should Be Immediately Transferred to Indigenous Peoples • Disruption of the National Unity or Territorial Integrity of a Country is Contrary to UN Charter.
The UN and Liberalism • UN as Planned Addressed Each of the Three Strands of Liberalism: • Collective Security in an Attempt to Mitigate the Security Dilemma: The “Four Policemen” • Economic Cooperation to Promote Economic Interdependence and Prosperity. • De-Colonization, with Pressure for Democratization in the Newly Independent Countries
UN During the Cold War • Soviet-American Conflict Rendered Security Council Ineffective • De-colonization saw UN membership increase from 51 states in 1945 to about 150 by mid-1970s • Increased focus on North-South Issues and Economic Development • Growing American Disenchantment with UN as Developing Countries Hostile to American Objectives Dominate the General Assembly
Votes With the Majority in the UN General Assembly, 1946-1990 Source: Lawrence Ziring et al. 2002. The United Nations: International Organization and World Politics. (New York: Harcourt Brace), page 99.
UN in Post Cold War World • No Longer the Block to Security Council Action • Chance for Greater UN Role in Security affairs • Two Purposes of UN Peacekeeping • Monitoring • Transformation