How are Elizabeth and Mary of Scots Related? Henry VII Arthur Henry VIII Anne Boleyn King James IV of Scotland Margaret James V Elizabeth I Mary, Queen of Scots Mary was pushed from Scotland due to a revolt led by Calvinists. Mary fled to England Elizabeth executes Mary, Queen of Scots because Mary is plotting against her…
Heirs to the Throne • Who were the mothers of these monarchs? • Who succeeds Henry VIII first?, second? Mary Elizabeth Edward
Edward VI (1547 – 1553) • Was loved by his father, and so brought up Protestant • Strengthened Protestant rule in England, and Protestant influence in the Church • Followed by?
Queen Mary Tudor - Bloody Mary • Restored Catholicism • Restored the Pope to rule over the Church in England • Cancelled Act of Supremacy • Married Philip II, Son of Charles V of Spain • Persecuted Protestants • (1553 – 1558)
Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • The “Virgin Queen” never marries • But “marries England” • Protestant - Anglican • Gets Parliament to re-pass • Act of Uniformity • Act of Supremacy • Executes her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots • Defeats Catholic Philip II and the Spanish Armada
Elizabeth I • Major Problems: • Religious • Financial • Parliament • Mary Stuart • Spanish • An heir…. • Questions… • What kind of queen was she? • How do you know? • Why did she do what she did? • What could she have done differently?
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Major Problems: • Religious • Act of Supremacy • Act of Uniformity • Compromises • Puritans’s demands • Financial • Parliament • Mary Stuart • Spanish • An heir…
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Major Problems: • Religious • Financial – funds tight: no colonies, few taxes • Elizabeth’s stinginess • Jt stock companies • Drake’s 1577 round the world voyage: 4600% profit! • Raleigh – “Virginia”/Roanoke • Sea dogs • Parliament • Spanish • Mary Stuart
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Major Problems: • Religious • Financial • Parliament • Puritans were a growing, outspoken bunch • Would not pass bills for new taxes • Mary Stuart • Spanish • An heir…
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Major Problems: • Religious • Financial • Parliament • Mary Stuart • Scottish Presbyterians exiled Catholic monarch • While in England she agreed to support a plot to overthrow Elizabeth • Spanish
Mary Queen of Scots Flees Presbyterian Uprising Remember John Knox? Conspired against Elizabeth, though she was Elizabeth’s 2nd cousin
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) • Major Problems: • Religious • Financial • Parliament • Mary Stuart • Spanish – annoyed them greatly! 5 Ways • Helped Dutch revolt • Helped Henry IV in France • Result: Protestants v Catholic Armada 1588
1588: A Historical Storm plus…? Spain: 8000 sailors, 20,000 soldiers, 130 ships England: Drake and Howards 65 ships and 10,000 soldiers
Thames River From the English Channel inland to London…
Ben Jonson on Shakespeare • “He was not of an age, but for all time.”
London, 1588 • Celtic village, then Roman: Londinium • Built up by Anglo-Saxons in Middle Ages, inside 1 sq. mile walls • 878AD, King Alfred def. Viking try at takeover • Europe’s most populous city – 200,000 Will. Shakespeare (1564-1616) • Wrote 38 plays • Added about 1700 words • Bump, critic, courtship, dwindle and lots more… • Before The Theatre was built…how was theater performed?
1600 - London was Bustling! London Bridge, Thames River • Velvet-clad merchants and ragged poor • Noise • Fire and plague (16 major outbreaks 1348-1700) • Elegant & raw • Boaters and Water carriers • Cappers and Barbers • Coneycatchers – • slang for theft through trickery (today, a “con”) • Vagabonds • Criminals/Jailers • 200 crimes punishable by execution Sir Francis Drake
Globe Theatre by James Burbages’ sons, 1599 Father built first in 1576, called simply “The Theater”
The rest of the chapter in a nutshell: 17th Century England • Political Tension: Monarchy v. Parliament • Divine Right of Kings : James asserts • Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right • Major issues: Use of money • English Civil War : A new kind of war • – Charles I beheaded • Protestants v. Protestants Puritans v. Church of England • Roundheads v. Cavaliers • Puritan Victory: Commonwealth of England • Oliver Cromwell – assumes role of a Puritan dictator • Restoration of Monarchy – Charles II • Protestantism v. Catholicism Part II • Demand for more Rights (Writ of Habeas Corpus) • Fear of Catholicism in kings – James II • Glorious Revolution – James II overthrown • Power of Parliament v. King • Mary and William – limited monarchs • English Bill of Rights
James (Stuart) I 1603-1625 • Elizabeth dies at 69 : Tudors… • Protestant - Church of England, but… • Puritans and Presbyterians protested “Catholic Rituals” • Divine Right of Kings • His mother was? • Parliament – he demanded money for wars • but politics was beneath him • Major Accomplishments- • King James Bible • Jamestown, VA settled under his reign 1607
King of Scotland,James I of England (was also James VI of Scotland) • Edinburgh Castle
Charles I (Stuart) 1625- 1649 • Son of James I • God’s annointed – very proud • Worsened problems • Finance - Wars (at first, w / Spain and France) • Forced nobles to pay loans or imprisoned them • Quartered troops in private homes • Religion – 1000s of Puritans flee • Is Bishop Laud a secret Catholic? • Parliament • A deal is struck in 1628 • He signed the Petition of Right 1628 Not part of the deal: Then he did not call Parliament to meet for 12 years (1629-1640)
Petition of RightIdeas that later became part of the US Constitution • The King May Not • Imprison people without due cause • (6th Amend. US Const.) • Tax without representation • (Decl. of Indep.) • Quarter troops in private homes • (3rd Amend. US Const.) • Impose martial law in peacetime • (US Constitution)
Charles I v The Scots !! • English Puritans and Scottish Presbyterians argued with Charles • Archbishop William Laud • Upset Scots created an army • Urges Charles to invade Calvinist Scotland! • Need for money led to parliament passing laws limiting the King’s rights in 1641
King Decided to Arrest Parliament’s Leaders 400 Swordsmen • “The birds are flown” • Londoners are furious with the king’s attempt • Charles goes north to raise an army Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658
English Civil War1642-1649 • Cromwell’s New Model Army v. King’s Forces • 100,000 died in the war • Fought mainly with swords, simple muskets, cannons. • Kings Army: Cavaliers • Nobles and Church Officials • (insult from Spanish)
The Roundheads • Parliament's New Model Army was comprised of 22,000 men, mostly Puritans: • Twelve regiments on foot: • 15,000 infantry • 2/3 musketeers, 1/3 pikemen • Eleven regiments of cavalry • 7,000 horsemen or dragoons • Artillery : 50 pieces
Cromwell’s Roundheads defeat the King’s Cavaliers • Parliament seeks to disband the New Model Army; • But Cromwell refuses • Cromwell defeats an army sent by Parliament • Captures Charles I • TRIAL
TRIAL Parliament v Royalists Question: Should King Charles I be executed? • Your contentions and evidence??
Charles I ‘s EndA first: public trial and execution of a monarch (Jan 30, 1649) “The season is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some observers may imagine proceeds from fear.”
Oliver Cromwell • 1649 – Commonwealth of England • After four years, in 1653, Cromwell dissolved Parliament and the Constitution • Took title of LORD PROTECTOR, A Dutch political cartoon
The Commonwealth of England created good and bad laws • Toleration Act; all may practice their faith • Jews no longer banned • Schools and universities open to all • But, After Parliament was dismissed, strict Puritan laws were created by Cromwell • No Sunday recreation • Social restrictions: No dancing, no theater • Sometimes dismissed habeas corpus • Invaded Ireland - Catholics – Drogheda!
Lord ProtectorRichard Cromwell • 1658 - 60 • Lacked charisma and support of people • Forced out • “Tumbledown Dick!”
John Milton Paradise Lost • A Puritan epic poem • Why must man endure such suffering and pain?
King Charles II and The Restoration(1660-1685) • Charles I family had fled to France • Reasonable ruler, sought to restore religious liberty • Upset Parliament - the Anglican Church • Makes a secret deal with French King, Louis XIV • Habeas Corpus Act passed by Parliament • Charles dies w/out an heir (childless) …uh oh!
James II (1685-1688) • Brother to Charles II, son of Charles I • Political parties form: Tories and Whigs • What excited people’s fears? • Converted to Catholic • But his oldest child is Mary, a Protestant lives in Holland • Then has another child • Appointed Catholics to high office • Puts an army outside London • James II then suspended Parliament • Whigs and Tories combined… • They invited Mary and William (Prince of Orange) to rule on one condition…that they do what???________________
Trivia Jamestown is named for James I…. What American city was named for James II? Hint: Before he was King James II he was the Duke of_____. While Duke his forces seized this city from the Dutch. Because there was already a city with the same name in England this American city’s name begins with the word “New”.
“GLORIOUS REVOLUTION”1688 • William & Mary - agreed to less power than earlier kings • Little bloodshed in England • Main bloodshed is in Ireland – • James II flees there • Defending James II, Irish soldiers overwhelmingly defeated • John Locke writes the English Bill of Rights. • Winners – Parliament and Protestantism • Losers - Monarchy, Catholicism, Irish and James II
General John Churchill deserted James II and joined William • A Tory, he at first supported James. • James II insulted him • Offended, he switches sides • No fighting in England, but in Ireland, yes • His descendent was a prime minister of England _____________?
English Bill of Rights 1688and American borrowings… • King can’t suspend the laws of Parliament • (see Declaration of Independence) • Parliament had to meet frequently • (US Constitution) • Elections should be free and fair • (US Constitution) • Debates in parliament should be subject to freedom of speech • (US Constitution) • No Taxes without approval of Parliament • (US Constitution) • No Standing Army without approval of Parliament • (See US Constitution) • No excessive Bail • (see US 8th Amendment)
How did Hobbes’ and Locke’s Views Differ? • Where do we see each of their viewpoints in the world today?
Thomas HobbesPolitical Writer and Philosopher • 1651 Wrote Leviathan • Devised “The Social Contract” theory • Leaders are given Power by the People • But leaders must ensure lives and order • People are NASTY, BRUTISH AND GREEDY • Conclusion: Leaders need to be incredibly Powerful • Hobbes saw people at their worst – • The Civil War was a bloody time Leviathan = Sea Monster All Powerful Monarch
John Locke Political Writer and Philosophe • Optimistic about Man and Society • In his life he experienced the Glorious Revolution where few people died. • Society did not need an Absolute Monarch, • the best government is a limited Government. • Wrote Essays on Government (1690) • Agreed with Hobbes about the Social Contract, but • People have Natural Rights- Include Life and Liberty • Government must protect Life AND Liberty Property • Power of Government should be LIMITED • Revolution is justified if Government fails to properly Govern • Wrote the English Bill of Rights (also called the Declaration of Rights)
Tower of London-Where the Kings and Queens lived Today, the crown jewels are kept there
Are people naturally inclined to Good or Bad? • Locke versus Hobbes • Who deserved their punishment more: King Charles I or James II ?