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Why classification matters

Why classification matters

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Why classification matters

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  1. Why classification matters The foundations of bibliographic classification

  2. Some current thinking about classification: it is obsolete it reflects nineteenth century views of the world it is essentially artificial it is a librarian’s device (and therefore to be resisted) it sees everything in terms of hierarchy it has a top-down approach to information whereas, in reality, everything is miscellaneous there is no hierarchy – only links

  3. No hierarchy – only links:

  4. How wrong is this? the world is not random there are many observable organized systems in the physical world, with hierarchy and other relationships taxonomic structures are not invalidated if the basis of the taxonomy changes even where there is no natural hierarchy, imposing order can only improve findability various ways of representing subject content support search, query formulation, retrieval, browsing, navigation, awareness of the subject domain, and so on

  5. Pattern and predictability:

  6. Early bibliographic classifications: are often little more than shelf-lists lack structure are full of ‘false’ hierarchies don’t differentiate between kinds of relationships notations may not reflect structure don’t have an analytical approach to content in short they lack logical foundations and reflect the absence of information science theory at the time of their creation

  7. Mixed paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationships(SC):

  8. Emergence of classification theory in the 20th century: writers such as H. E. Bliss start to formalise classification theory basic principles for library classification for shelf order and are laid down by him Otlet establishes classification for documentation, with analytico-synthetic tools designed for retrieval rather than physical organization, and the expression of complex content Ranganathan introduces the idea of faceted classification, and also develops a substantial corpus of theory his ideas are taken up by the Classification Research Group who produce a distinctly British version

  9. Modern classification theory: gives us a proper basis for organizing a subject domain as represented by its constituent concepts it identifies the difference between concepts, terms, and control devices (such as notations or urls) (Ranganathan’s idea, verbal, and notational planes) it shows that, nevertheless these aspects are all interrelated it provides a common basis for systematic, alphabetic, post-coordinate and pre-coordinate systems good theory supports the creation of consistent, usable tools

  10. A classification (KOS) consists of: • concepts (vocabulary) * conceptual analysis * categorization (or grouping) * order * relationships • system syntax (grammar) * how to deal with compounds * rules for combination * citation order * ways of maintaining linear order

  11. Modern faceted methodologies build logical systems: concepts are organized into facets facets are organized into arrays (or sub-facets) principles of division are clearly articulated terms in the same facet are all in hierarchical (paradigmatic) relationship terms in different facets are in non-hierarchical (syntagmatic) relationship filing order of facets is determined by principles such as increasing concreteness, general-before-special, and dependency filing order of arrays is more pragmatic, but logically derived order of combination is equally well established methodologically

  12. The structure of the faceted classification:______________________________________________________________________ it uses ‘simple’ concepts, organized into a logical structure it uses a standard set of categories to analyse the concepts it has a standard ‘syntax’ for building compound descriptions it can be used to create structured classmarks, or it can provide thesaurus descriptors it can be used in a search interface

  13. Basic classification structure: Facet label [Foods] (By physical state) HKH PO Essences HKH PP Extracts HKH PS Pastes HKH PY (By operation/process used) (By utility, etc.) HKH QD Convenience foods HKH QE Partly prepared foods HKH QF Instant foods HKH QK Artificial foods, synthetic foods (By purpose) (By physiological function) HKH QS Roughage Hierarchical relationships Array labels Collocation of synonyms

  14. Complex repeating structure derived from syntax rules: HUQ W Thymus gland (Physiology) HUQ WH (Pathology) (Hyperplasia) HUQ WMD V Lymphatism, status lymphaticus (Causal agents) (Symptoms) (Treatment) (Neoplasms) HUQ WME Thymomas (Products) HUQ X Thymus hormones (Molecular structure) HUQ XS Thymopoietins [Compound terms pre-synthesized and added to published schedule] [Examples of potential synthesized compounds]

  15. What are the advantages of a structured KOS? it is highly logical and predictable as a result it improves performance it is a good organizing tool for a physical collection or a linear file it has a natural affinity with automated systems the classification data can be held in a database because of the clear articulation of relationships the data can be output as a thesaurus a complex structure is easily developed as examples of compounds are added to the system it is easily exported into other representation formats it provides a good basis for visualization tools

  16. View-based Systems HIBROWSE search tool: