Adjectives One-syllable adjectives add –er and –est: tall – taller – the tallest If the adjective ends in –y, this changes to –ier and –iest: dry – drier – the driest If the adjective ends ina single consonant after a single vowel, the consonant is doubled: Hott – hotter – the hottest
Irregular adjectives good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – farther/further – the farthest/furthest Two-syllable adjectives which end in –y add –er and –est happy – happier – the happiest
Most other two-syllable adjectives take more and most ancient – more ancient – the most ancient • Some syllables can take either the endings er/est or more/the most common, cruel, gentle, handsome, likely, mature, pleasant, polite, simple, stupid
more is used with comparative degree • With one-syllable past participle adjectives bored, pleased, worn, creased used with more/less These trousers look more worn than the others. • With fun, real, right and wrong She couldn’t have been more wrong.
When comparing two qualities I think he was more mad than brave.
Adverbs • Most adverbs form comparative and superlative with more and most easily – more easily – the most easily • Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form comparatives and superlatives the same way as adjectives fast – faster – the fastest hard – harder – the hardest early – earlier – the earliest straight – straighter – the straightest
Irregular forms: well – better – the best badly – worse – the worst
Qualifiers with adjectives to be + (qualifier) comparative + than His new film was better than his previous one. • No, hardly any • A little, slightly, (quite) a bit • A lot, considerably, a great deal, far, (very)much
as +adjective/adverb + as • Can be followed by: • Noun or a noun phrase He’s as tall as his father. • Object pronoun He thinks nobody knows as much as him. • A clause He’s as tall as his father is. He thinks nobody knows as much as he does.
By possible, ever, usual I’ll stay as long as possible. He looked as handsome as ever. • The negative is formed with not as.../not so... She’s not as/so careful as she should be.
Qualifying as... as structure • Just, almost, nearly, quite, twice, 3 times etc. Mary is just as hard-working as Jane. She works twice as hard as Julie. • Not nearly, not quite, not half Tom is not nearly as well-mannered as Tim. • With negative beginning: nearly, quite, half She doesn’t seem half as kind as Jenny. He doesn’t speak French quite as well as her/she does.
not anything like as /nothing like as Tom is far more sophisticated than John. John is nothing like as sophisticated as Tom. John is not anything like as sophisticated as Tom.
as + much/many + noun • Half, twice, three times ... He requires half as much energy as me/I do. I need twice as many players as you offer.
Using a singular noun between an adjective and the second as The article a/an comes before the noun It used to be a quiet place. It’s not as quiet anymore. It’s not as quiet a place as it used to be.
We can use how, so and too followed by an adjective in a similar way Howimportant an issue it was for you? It’s not quite sostraighforward a problem as it might seem. It’s too difficult a task to solve alone.
So + adj./adv. + that clause He was so shocked that he couldn’t utter a word. She speak so quietly that nobody can hear her.
Go so/as far as + to inf. • To express an action which is surprising or extreme. One furious woman went as far as to throw tomatoes at the minister.
Gradable and ungradable adjectives • Ungradable adjectives describe extreme qualities which can’t be ‘more’ or ‘less’ amazing, dead, exhausted, fantastic etc. Use with them: absolutely, completely, quite (= absolutely, completely) , totally, utterly etc. The performance was absolutely amazing.
Other adjectives are gradable. Use with them: a bit, a little, fairly, quite (= rather, fairly), really, too, very She looks very beautiful today.
Order of adjectives 1 judgement 2 size 3 shape 4 colour 5 origin 6 material 7 purpose
Put the adjectives into the right order before the noun • dining • lovely • round • silk • little • Chinese • brown • table A lovely, little, round, brown, Cinese, wooden, dining table