Bren Chung y Jua Barbero Types and components of computer systems
Index • Hardware • Software • Computer • Input Device • Output Device • Storage Device • Processor • Types of computer
Hardware • These are the physical parts of a computer system • This means that you can feel or touch them. E.g.: monitor screen, printer, mouse, pen drive, ROM & RAM, computer case, keyboard, etc.
ROM & RAM RAM - Randomaccessmemory • Is the computer’s ‘working memory’. It stores programs and data that are being used at a given time. The contents of RAM can be changed and are lost when the computer is turned off . ROM - Read onlymemory • Is used to store the program that runs when the computer is turned on which loads the operating system. Its contents can’t be changed and aren’t lost when the computer is switched off .
Software • Is the set of instructions which make the computer system do something. • Make it possible to do specific works. Like the word processor, which allows to perform your works by editing the text. E.g.: computer’s operating system or system software, and the applications or programs.
Computer • Is a device designed to do something such as: process information or control a system. • An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is the accepting of input from human operators and the output of results formatted for human consumption.
Input Device • Is used to put data into the computer. • Different types of input device.. • Manual: keyboards, mouse, scanners, cameras, microphones, etc. • Direct: MIRC, OMR, OCR, chip readers, bar code readers, etc. • Sensors: temperature, pressure, and light sensors.
Processor • Does something with the data given by the input device. • The data is modified by inserting bits and bytes into de document. • It can: • Calculate • Sort • Search • Store • Draw.
Bits and bytes • A single unit in binary is called a bit which stands for binary digit. • Computer memory is measured in bytes. • One byte is made up of eight bits. • Th e eight-bit binary code in this byte represents the letter B.
Computer memory • The size of a computer’s memory is normally measured in kilobytes (kB), megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). Th e table below shows some of the main units of size that we use to measure computer memory.
Output Device • Is used to tell someone or something the results of the data processing carried to the outside world. • Examples of output devices: • Speakers • Headphones • Screen (Monitor) • Printer
Storage Device • Used to store/record programs and data when the processor is turned off. • The programs and data must be put back into the processors’ memory when needed for use. • E.g.: hard disk, CD ROM, floppy, DVD ROM.
Operating system • Is an important set of software programs that ‘brings the computer to life’ this means that its makes the computer able to do useful things. • There many different types of it, each one makes a computer act in a slightly different way. • One of this programs controls what users see on the screen: interface
Interface • There are many types of it, which one is chosen depends on: • The jobs of the computer has to do. • The type of user and their abilities. • Here are two types of interface: • Graphical user interface • Command-line interface
Graphical user interface • Uses graphics for more complicated actions. They are typified by the use of little pictures (icons) which are pointed by an arrow controlled by a mouse. The screen is divided into different areas (windows) • If you put (windows, icons, mouse, pointer) together, you get WINP.
Command-line interface • An interface for communicating with a computer. • In this case you have to type in specific commands to tell the computer what to do. This is more difficult to use for two main reasons: • The user must know all the commands. • The user must be careful not to make any typing errors.
Types of computer – 20th century • 1940s- A team of code breakers invented the Colossus. • 1950s & 1960s- Companies and universities began to invest in large computers, called mainframes. • 1970s- Companies started to fit terminals to mainframes. • 1980s- These computerswere called personal computers. • 1990s- Portables computers became popular, known as laptops or notebooks. • 2000s- The palmtops (small laptops) became popular. • 2010s- A mobile phone is included, called Smartphone.