By: Fernando Manuel Calderón and Sebastián Gabriel Guozden Form: 1thB Year: 2011 Types and Components of the Computer System
Index • What is a Computer? • What is the Hardware? • What is the Software? • Hardware vs. Software • Main Components of a Computer • Main or Internal Memory • Measures the size of the memory • Video Software and Hardware ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mv9463LXyCE )
What's a Computer? • A computer is a device, or a group of devices, designed to do something, such as process information or control a system.
What is the Hardware? • The “Hardware”are the physical parts of a computer system, the ones that you can feel and touch. Ex: A monitor, a printer, a mouse or a pen drive.
What is the Software? • The “Software” is the set of instructions that make the computer do sth. • There are two main types of softwares: • Operating System • Applications
Hardware vs. Software • The main difference between Hardware and Software : • You can touch Hardware – it is made of physical objects. • Software relates to ideas and instructions for using the solid objects.
Main Components of a Computer • The Hardware of most computers can be divided into several types of device: • Input Device • Processor • Output Device • Storage Device
Applications • The “Applications”or “Programs”will allowed users to use the computer to play a game, for example, or write a letter. • Here are a few examples of general-purpose applications and what they can be used for: • Word-Processing Application • Database Programs • Spreadsheet Applications • Presentation Applications • Desktop-Publishing packages • Graphics Programs • Computer-Aided Design Packages • Communications Software • Web Page Editors • Audio Production and Editing Programs
Word-Processing Application • Word-Processing Applications are used to produce letters, reports and memos.
Database Programs • Database programs are used to store and retrieve information.
Spreadsheet Applications • Spreadsheet applications are used for tasks that involve calculations or graphs or charts.
Presentation Applications • Presentation Applications are used to create slide shows and presentations.
Desktop-Publishing Packages • Desktop-Publishing Packages are used to produce posters, newsletters and magazines.
Graphics Programs • Graphics Programs are used for artwork.
Computer-Aided Design Packages • Computer-Aided Design Packages are used to produce detailed designs and plans.
Web Page Editors • Web Page Editors are used to create web pages.
Audio Production and Editing Programs • Audio Production and Editing Programs are a common way of producing high quality music at low cost.
Communication Software • Communication Software such as web browsers and email programs are used to access the internet and send and receive emails.
Input Device • An Input Device is used to put data into the computer.
Processor • A Processor does something with the data given by the Input Device
Output Device • An output device is used to tell someone or something the result that the processor came up with.
Storage Device • A Storage Device keeps all this data and the Software that is used. If the computer did not have somewhere to store things it would forget everything when it was turned off.
Main or Internal Memory • One important part of the CPU is the Main Memory. This is used to store all the data and instructions which the computer is going to use or the answers that it has produce. • Within the main memory there are two other memories that are complementary and that makes the main memory to fulfill its function, and this memories are called: • Rom (Read Only Memory) • Ram(Random Access Memory)
ROM • In order to reload the programs and data, the computer must be ready to do things. This means that when you switch it on the computer must already have some software in it so that it can understand what you want to do. This software is stored on a special type of main memory called Rom. • Rom would be useless for doing work or running programs, though, because we normally want to change things
RAM • This memory called RAM stores anything that needs to be changed. All the programs and all the data being used are stored here.
Measures the size of the memory • The Computer can only understand electrical signals being turned on or off. • These signals can be stand for 0 (no signal being sent) or 1 (an electric signal). • Everything else has to be made up of combinations of these electrical signals or no electrical signals. The memory of the computer can be measure by:
Users Interfaces • The interfaces are a part of the operating system. • Operating System is the set of instuctions that makes the computer works. • There are manytypes of interfaces. The chosing of themdepends on: • The job that the computer has to do • the types of users and theirabilities. • A type of interface can be the Graphical Users Interfacesoralso the command line interface (CLI)
Types of computer(oldones to new ones) • The types of computers are: • Mainframe • Terminal • Personal Computers • Laptop • Netbooks • Palmtops
Mainframe • Big computer • Usedbymanycompanies. • Begin to beusedbetween 1950 and 1960
Terminal • It is usally a keyboard and a monitor screenwhichlets a personhavetheirownconnection to the computer. • The users of theseterminalscoulsthenall share the power of single mainframes.
Personal Computers • Theybelong to a single person • They are contolledby a personratherthan a largecompany.
Laptop • In 1990 portablecompuersbecame popular. • Theywere name as Laptops. • Laptops havetheirownpowersupply and screen. • Completly portable althoughtheyhave the same hardware than the PC.
Netbooks • Recentlytheybecome popular. • They are small. • Usuallycheap. • Lesspowerfull laptops use mainly to browse internet.
Palmtops • Whenbatterieswheredeveloped That combined a smallñersizewith a longerlife. • Smaller laptops becamepossible. • Some laptops can enter in humanhands.
Command Line Interfaces • This is an Interface forcomunicatingwith the computer. • Withthis interface youhave to type in specificcommands to tell the computer what to do. • This is difficultformanyresons: • The usermustknowallcomands. • The usermustbecarefullnot to make any error.
Graphical Users Interfaces • GUIs are typifiedby the use of littlepictures(calledicons) to stand forthings that can be done. • Theseicons can bepointebyanarrow on the screencontolledby the mouse. • The screen can bedividedintodifferentareaswich can havediffernetthings in them; these are calledwindows. • Puting the forelementstogetheryouget the WIMP. Graphical Users Interfaces are sometimes calles WIMP.
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