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Class-X

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  1. Class-X

  2. Grammar

  3. The Path to Effective Writing Understanding Active and Passive Voice

  4. Verbs and Voice • Voiceis the form a verb takes to indicate whether the subject of the verb performs or receives the action. • There are two types of voice: active voice and passive voice.

  5. Active Voice • Active Voice– indicates that the subject of the verb is acting • Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such sentences, the sentences are said to be in the active voice.

  6. Passive Voice • In a passive voice sentence, the subject and object flip-flop. The subject becomes the passive recipient of the action. • Because the subject is being "acted upon" (or is passive), such sentences are said to be in the passive voice.

  7. Reasons to Use the Active Voice • Most writers prefer to use active voice because it is more direct. • Compare • Active: The waiter dropped the tray of food. • Passive: The tray of food was dropped by the waiter.

  8. When to Use Passive Voice • In general, the passive voice is less direct, less forceful, and less concise than the active voice. • Use the passive voice in the following situations: • Use passive voice when you do not know or do not want to reveal the performer of an action. • Use passive voice when you want to emphasize the receiver of an action.

  9. Form of Passive Voice Verbs • The passive voice requires a "double verb" and will always consist of a form of the verb "to be" and the past participle (usually the "en/ed/t" form) of another verb. • Example: • Active: John baked the bread. • Passive: The bread was bakedby John. (Was is a form of the verb “be”.)

  10. Form of Passive Voice Verbs • Writers should be familiar with the forms of "to be" , often called linking verbs, so that they can easily identify the passive voice in their work. • Review the forms of "to be": • am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

  11. Form of Passive Voice Verbs • Note the forms of "to be" in the examples of the verb "to kick" in various forms of the passive voice: • is kicked----------------had been kickedwas kicked-------------is going to be kickedis being kicked---------will be kickedhas been kicked-------can be kickedwas being kicked------should be kicked

  12. Form of Passive Voice Verbs • Often passive voice sentences will contain a "by" phrase indicting who or what performed the action. • Passive sentences can be easily transformed into active sentences when the object of the preposition "by" is moved to the subject position in the sentence.

  13. Form of Passive Voice Verbs • Examples: • Passive: The cookies were eaten by the children. • Active: The children ate the cookies. • Passive: The tunnels are dug by the gophers. • Active: The gophers dug the tunnels.

  14. Let’s Practice • Directions: Change the sentences below to the active voice. • The statue is being visited by hundreds of tourists every year. • My books were stolen by someone yesterday. • These books had been left in the classroom by a careless student. • Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by plantation workers. • The house had been broken into by someone while the owners were on vacation.

  15. Let’s Practice • Directions: Change the sentences below to the passive voice. • Children cannot open these bottles easily. • The government built a road right outside her front door. • Mr. Ross broke the antique vase as he walked through the store. • When she arrived, the changes amazed her. • The construction workers are making street repairs all month long.

  16. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Present Continuous Tense Active: S + am/is/are + V-ing + O Passive: S + am/is/are+ being +PP + by + O EX: He is writing a novel at the moment. A novel is being written (by him) at the moment.

  17. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Present Perfect Tense Active: S + Has/Have + V3ed + O Passive: S + has/have + been +PP + by + O EX: He has just finished a novel. A novel has just been finished (by him).

  18. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Past Continuous Tense Active: S + was/were + V-ing + O Passive: S + was/were + being + PP + by + O EX: He was writing a letter at 8.00 yesterday. A letter was being written (by him).

  19. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Past Perfect Tense Active: S + had + V3ed + O Passive: S + had+ been + PP + by + O EX: He had finished his homework before 8.00 yesterday. His homework had been finished (by him) before 8.00 yesterday.

  20. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Future Continuous Tense Active: S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O Passive: S + will/shall + be + being + PP + by + O EX: Tom will be cooking lunch at 10.00 tomorrow. Lunch will be being cooked by Tom at 10.00 tomorrow.

  21. TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE • The Future Perfect Tense Active: S + will/shall + have + V3ed + O Passive: S + will/shall + have + been + PP + by + O EX: By the end of next week, he will have written 10 letters to her. By the end of next week, 10 letters will have been written to her.

  22. MODAL VERBS (MV) IN PASSIVE VOICE Modal Verbs can be used in either the present or past forms. Active: S + MV (not) + V + O Passive: S + MV (not) + Be + PP + by + O EX: We can’t solve this problem. This problem can’t be solved.

  23. PASSIVE VOICE WITH CAUSATIVE FORM Active: S + Has/Have + O1 + V (BI)+ O2 S + Get + O1 + V (to-infinitive) + O2 Passive: S + Has/Have/Get + O2 + PP EX: My father had Tom wash his car. My father had his car washed by Tom

  24. OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE Verbs of liking/loving/wanting/wishing + Object + infinitive form their passive with the passive infinitive. Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S + V + O + To Be + PP EX: He wants someone to take photographs. He wants photographs to be taken.

  25. Such verbs as “have/let/make/hear/see/watch/feel/ observe” are used in the following passive structure: Active: S + V + O + V (BI) Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-Infinitive EX: The gravity makes things drop down. Things are made to drop down by the gravity. Note: The verb following “let” does not bear “to” in the passive sentence.

  26. OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + Indirect Object + Infinitive + Object, we have two ways of making the passive voice. <1>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-infinitive + O2 EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax. The Council was urged to reduce the tax.

  27. OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + Indirect Object + infinitive + Object, we have two ways of making the passive voice. <2>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S1 + V + that + S2 + should be + PP EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax. He urged that the tax should be reduced.

  28. OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS AFTER THE PASSIVE VERB After acknowledge/assume/believe/claim/ consider /estimate/feel/find/know/report/ say/think /understand …, we use the infinitive construction. Simple Infinitive: if the time in the infinitive passive is the same as that of the main active verb.

  29. <1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: It + To Be + PP + that + S2 + V2 + (O) EX: People said that he was jealous of her. It was said that he was jealous of her.

  30. <2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to + V+ (O) EX: People said that he was jealous of her. He was said to be jealous of her.

  31. Perfect Infinitive: if the time in the infinitive passive is earlier than that of the main active verb. <1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: It + To Be + PP + that + S2 + V2 + (O) EX: People say that he was jealous of her. It issaid that he was jealous of her.

  32. <2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to have + PP + (O) EX: People say that he was jealous of her. He is said to have been jealous of her.

  33. OTHER GERUND COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE With advise/insist/propose/recommend /suggest + Gerund + Object Active: S + V + V-ing + O Passive: S + V + that + S+ should be + PP EX: He recommended using bullet-proof glass. He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used.

  34. OTHER GERUND COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE Active: S + V + O + V-ing Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by + O EX: I remembered my father taking me to the zoo. I remember being taken to the zoo by my father.

  35. Active: S + V + To-inf + O Passive: S + V + To Be + PP + by + O EX: She started to learn English 5 years ago. English started to be learnt 5 years ago. Active: S + V + V-ing + O Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by + O EX: She started learning English 5 years ago. English started being learnt 5 years ago.

  36. Exercise • A piece of plastic had been swallowed by the child. • Two separate people were given rides in the new models by the designer. • Our dog is frightened by loud thunderstorms • The store was kept open until 11:00 p.m. by the overtired workers. • The ball is hit straight into the bleachers by the batter.

  37. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH 1. STATEMENT 2. COMMAND 3. QUESTION

  38. THE CHANGES OF TOBE & AUXILIARY VERBS • DIRECT • Am, is, are • Shall/will • Can • May • Must • Have/has to • Ought to • INDIRECT • Was/were • Should/would • Could • Might • Had to

  39. CHANGES OF ADVERB OF TIME & PLACE • DIRECT • NOW • TOMORROW • NEXT WEEK • TONIGHT • TODAY • YESTERDAY • LAST NIGHT • LAST WEEK • HERE • THIS • THESE • INDIRECT • THEN • THE FOLLOWING DAY • THE FOLLOWING WEEK • THAT NIGHT • THAT DAY • THE DAY BEFORE • THE NIGHT BEFORE • THE WEEK BEFORE • THERE • THAT • THOSE

  40. CHANGES OF TENSES • DIRECT • SIMPLE PRESENT • SIMPLE PAST • PRESENT PERFECT • PRESENT CONTINUOUS • PRESENT PERFECT CONT. • SIMPLE FUTURE • INDIRECT • SIMPLE PAST • PAST PERFECT • PAST PERFECT • PAST CONTINUOUS • PAST PERFECT CONT. • PAST FUTURE

  41. 1. STATEMENT HE SAID HE SAID TO ME HE TOLD ME THAT REPORTED WORDS

  42. STATEMENT EXAMPLE • DIRECT • They said to me: “we are going to visit Borobudur tomorrow.” • Jeffry said: “I didn’t go to school today. • Anne told Agus: “My father got angry with me last night. • INDIRECT • They said to me that they were going to visit Borobudur the following day. • Jeffry said that he hadn’t gone to school that day. • Anne told Agus that her father had got angry with herthe night before.

  43. STATEMENT Exception:If the introductory sentence is in the Present Tense, there won’t be any changes in the Reported (Indirect) speech . • DIRECT • Cindy says: “ I will come to your house tonight.” • Indra says: “I have seen that film for twice.” • “Dessy says: “I meet my boyfriend every saturday.” • Chandra says: “I don’t like sport.” • INDIRECT • Cindy says that she will come to my house tonight • Indra says that he has seenthat film for twice. • Dessy says that shemeets her boyfriend every Saturday. • Chandra says that he doesn’t like sport.

  44. 2. COMMAND a. Possitive Command: HE ASKED ME HE TOLD ME TO INFIVITIVE

  45. COMMAND EXAMPLE • DIRECT • The teacher asked me: Open your book page 65!” • Siska asked Manu: “give me a piece of paper”! • “Ronny told him: “call me tonight! • INDIRECT • The teacher asked me to open my book page 65. • Siska asked Manu to give her a piece of paper. • Ronny told him to call him that night.

  46. 2. COMMAND b. Negative Command: HE ASKED ME HE TOLD ME NOT TO INFIVITIVE

  47. COMMAND EXAMPLE • DIRECT • Santy asked Edy: Don’t leave me alone anymore!” • Valenxia asked Indra: “Don’t hurt me anymore”! • “Subhan told them: “Don’t disturb me! • INDIRECT • Santy asked Edy not to leave her alone anymore. • Valenxia asked Indra not to hurt her anymore. • Subhan told them not to disturb him.

  48. QUESTION a. Yes / No Question HE ASKED ME IF/WHETHER S + V + COMPLEMENT

  49. A. Yes/No Question Example • DIRECT • Ricky asked Henry: Does your father work near here?” • Mr. Bean asked Cyntia: “have you collected your homework?” • Dessy asked William: “can you accompany me to Lippo tonight? • INDIRECT • Ricky asked Henry if/whether his father worked near there. • Mr. Bean asked Cyntia if/whether she had collected her homework. • Dessy asked William if/whether he could accompany her to Lippo that night.

  50. b. Wh- Question Example • DIRECT • The girl asked me: “Where Do you come from?” • My father asked my brother: “Why did you arrive at home late last night?” • Handy asked the girl: “what is your favorite movie star? • INDIRECT • The girl asked me where I came from. • My father asked my brother why he had arrived at home late the night before • Handy asked the girl what her favorite movie star was